Road to War (1640-1642)

Mind Map by stacie.carter, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by stacie.carter over 6 years ago


(History) Mind Map on Road to War (1640-1642), created by stacie.carter on 05/29/2013.

Resource summary

Road to War (1640-1642)
1 Short Parliament
1.1 Why was it called?
1.1.1 1638: Scottish rebellion - C determined to crush it
1.1.2 1639: raised army & army = widespread opposition
1.1.3 First Bishops War = humiliating defeat for C - Peace of Berwick
1.1.4 Wentworth recalled from Ireland - advised C to call P etc
1.1.5 C & Wentworth = out of touch as P not called for 11 yrs & W in Ireland for 7 yrs
1.1.6 Strafford returned to Ireland few weeks before P - fear bring back Catholic Army to threaten England
1.1.7 Irish P = £45,000 taxes & 9,000 soldiers
1.1.8 C = forced loan from closest supporters - £232,000 as long as P recalled
1.2 Preparations for Parliament
1.2.1 Strafford & C = confident MPs approve taxes - patriotism & dislike of Scots
1.2.2 S in Ireland & C's dislike of public speaking = case made by Finch & Vanes - inexperienced PCs
1.2.3 little influence in elections - 40/500 Commons MPs = 'court candidates' - majority = conservative landowners, inexperienced & no leadership
1.3 King's Speech, 13th April 1640
1.3.1 "never was a king that had more weighty cause to call his people together... I will not trouble you with particulars (whole speech)
1.3.2 MPs = patronised and frustrated
1.3.3 short speech = stammer, view MPs not need persuading, didn't like P
1.3.4 Finch outlined order of business: MPs approve taxes, approve Bill for collection of T & P, grievances discussed if time
1.3.5 MPs = angry & mistrustful - wanted grievance first
1.3.6 Finch = speaker held down before - memories of crown difficulties back then
1.3.7 MPs raised grievances disorderly
1.4 Pym's Speech
1.4.1 Pym: Devonshire MP, Puritan
1.4.2 speech united MPs = established as leader & made getting taxes harder without some sort of deal
1.4.3 Stafford returned next day
1.4.4 next few days = government did nothing (divisions between PCs - compromise vs hard-line approach)
1.5 Vane's Compromise
1.5.1 compromise for MPs: if taxation of £960,000 approved - king abolish SM
1.5.2 MPs rejected - not strong grievance (SM = illegal & tone was offensive)
1.5.3 MPs = petition demanding end to preps for war
1.6 Dissolution, 5th May
1.6.1 6AM = emergency meeting of PCs: Vane = dissolution of P, Stafford & Laud = keep P open (arrived too late)
1.6.2 C dissolved P
2 Consequences of Failure of Short Parliament
2.1 Privy Council Meeting, 5th May
2.1.1 Strafford urged C - continue military plans & suggested: alliance with Spain = unpopular help from France = unpopular "you are loosed and absolved from all rules of government. You have an army in Ireland you may employ to reduce this kingdom"
2.1.2 3 Lords & several Commons MPs arrested, Pym's house searched = attack on MPs rights/privileges
2.2 Convocation remained sitting
2.2.1 ruling body of C of E: compromised of bishops
2.2.2 custom = met & ended @ same time as P
2.2.3 voted: £20,000 to king, new canons (priests preach Divine Right, communion tables, alter rail, priests take oath of loyalty to bishops etc.)
2.2.4 greatest opposition = Anglicans & Puritans, losing support of majority & increasing fears of Catholicism
2.2.5 oath targeted Puritans, esp. Presb & therefore Scot Church
2.3 Social unrest
2.3.1 trade depression = poverty & unemployment esp. in ports (London = biggest)
2.3.2 unemployment for workers - rising unemployment = riots (May 1640) - blaming government
2.3.3 religious division to unrest - London = strong Puritan support, hatred of Catholics & religious changes (Lambeth Palace attacked)
2.3.4 landowning classes feared social uprising
2.4 Financial Preparations for War
2.4.1 £500,000 needed; some from Irish P (Strafford & bishops in convocation)
2.4.2 debasing of coinage discussed - not implemented (shows desperation)
2.4.3 £130,000 worth of bullion (London merchant companies) seized by government
2.4.4 government brought pepper @ low rate - resold @ market price = £50,000 profit
2.4.5 fall in customs duties = trade depression in 1640
2.4.6 £241,000 SM ordered - £43,000 collected
2.4.7 government faced tax-payers strike - C lost support of landowners, system of government breaking down & bankrupt by summer 1640
2.4.8 Coat & Conduct money order - refusal to pay
2.5 Second Bishops' War, August 1640
2.5.1 Scot army invaded N. England & brief fighting - 12 S & 60 E killed
2.5.2 only fighting - Scots captured Newcastle (London's coal supply\0
2.6 Council of Peers summoned
2.6.1 inc. C most loyal supporters
2.6.2 met Sept - Oct in York - riots in London (make unpressurised decision & hatred of Scots strong in N.
2.6.3 lords advised C to: make peace with S, call English P
2.7 Treaty of Ripon, 21st Oct 1640
2.7.1 temp agreement to stop fighting until permanent peace treaty signed
2.7.2 Scots continue occupation of N.
2.7.3 C = agreed to pay £850 per day to Scot army
2.7.4 idea Scots in contact with C's opponents in E - weak C = benefitted MPs (forced demands)
3 Long Parliament, Nov 1640 - Aug 1641
3.1 New MPs
3.1.1 64/500 Commons MPs = 'court candidates'
3.1.2 MPs opposing government united under Pym - determined to prevent abuses of PR
3.1.3 strong opposition to government from H of L (traditionally support government)
3.1.4 Commons MPs = moderate, conservative landowners; reformers not revolutionaries
3.2 Redressing Grievances
3.2.1 "evil councillors" (Laud & Strafford) some PCs fled abroad 11th Nov: S returned to Lon to sit as MP in H of L - arrested & taken to Tower Laud arrested & imprisoned Jan 1641: 28 articles of impeachment against S Mar: S trial - defended himself, prosecution led by Pym (Lords = judge & jury, C attended some sessions S defended himself v. ably many witnesses = biased & inconclusive evidence 13th April: trial abandoned - Lords prided themselves on fair judgement - seen evidence not strong enough to prove guilty Bill of Attainder against S = declaration of treason not able to be defended against popular demonstrations outside Lords - death of Strafford & put pressure on Lords C addressed L personally - would never sign Bill (mistake = identifying with Strafford - enabled undecided to vote for Bill = show opposition to Strafford without fear of it becoming legal) 7th May: Pym revealed army plot against P 8th May: Lords passed Bill 26:19 decision passed to C: not close to S (kept away from power - never fully trusted), demonstrations outside Whitehall, Strafford wrote to King 19th May: C signed Bill 12th May: Strafford executed significance of death C never forgave himself C say MPs as murderers MPs saw C as weak ruler C's reversal didn't inspire trust fears of army plot subsided raised issue of appointment of government ministers revealed early signs of divisions of demonstrations & Bill
3.2.2 religious MPs attacked Laudiansim: Laud arrested - Canons of May 1640 = illegal as convocation should have stopped with P Pym = delayed discussions - religion create divisions Dec 1640: Londoners presented Root and Branch Petition to Commons = abolition of bishops Feb 1641: Commons discussed Petition: Puritans supported (hated bishops), Anglicans wanted reform of bishops (saw as pillars of order) = Bill abandoned March 1641: Pym = 'Exclusion Bill' - reform bishops (passed Commons narrowly, rejected by Lords - fears H of C becoming too dominant)
3.2.3 constitutional easier to settle Feb: MPs passed Triennial Bill (P meet every 3yrs for 50days at least - king not close at this time) - effective in next P - Charles refused but signed later @ popular pressure = first guarantee of regular P: too radical vs moderate Act of 10th May: existing P not dissolved without consent (C agreed = distracted by S trial) July: prerogative courts abolished & king's powers to create them July - Aug: several Acts passed - abolished SM, monopolies, forest fines & knighthood fines = tax P needed to approve called Constitutional Reforms of 1641
3.3 Situation by Aug 1641
3.3.1 MPs = broadly united, grievances addressed but division in religion & Strafford
3.3.2 atmosphere of fear & mistrust: army plot, destruction of power
3.3.3 C = plans to visit Scot in summer
3.3.4 24th June: Pym = 10 Propositions to H of C - main demand = P approval of government ministers (moderates alarmed & rejected by C)
3.3.5 H of C discussed sending MPs to Scot with C - C refused but passed as Ordinance ( moderates alarmed)
4 Long Parliament, Oct 1641 - Aug 1642
4.1 King's Visit to Scotland
4.1.1 C appeared willing to compromise but plot failed to kidnap Scot leaders (angered Scots = relations harder & supported Pym - C poorly advised & fears of army plot in E increased)
4.1.2 C agreed to peace terms: rule Scot with Scot P, govern Scot Church with Scot Assembly, disband army in N England, no longer pay Scot army = lower taxes in Eng = popular
4.2 Reassembled Parliament, Oct 1641
4.2.1 C not return until Nov
4.2.2 divisions in Parliament moderates = alarmed by radical measures, most = Anglican (keep bishops - worried about social disorder) radicals = led by Pym - more concessions from king, many = Puritan (abolish bishops - use pop demonstrations = "functional radicalism")
4.3 Irish Rebellion, Oct 1641
4.3.1 1,000s Prots murdered by Irish Catholics - rumours spread & believed
4.3.2 MPs = army sent to army - punish Catholics (issue of leadership arose: C & moderates = C control; if P did would remove more power, Pym & radicals = P control; C could use it against them)
4.3.3 Enter text here
4.3.4 irreconcilable issue: "rebellion widened cracks in P, it did not create them" - option of sharing control not considered due to distrust
4.3.5 8th Nov: Pym presented Commons Additional Instruction = demanded P approval of ministers else MPs "take steps for securing Ireland for ourselves" (passed 151:110 - rejected by Lords)
4.4 Grand Remonstrance, Nov 1641
4.4.1 Pym: Grand Remonstrance to Commons = 204 clauses
4.4.2 purpose = reunite MPs when C in Scot
4.4.3 clauses = abuses of PR, MPs achievements & proposals for more reform
4.4.4 never intended for Lords - direct appeal to Commons
4.4.5 1st Proposal = exclude bishops from Lords
4.4.6 2nd Proposal = synod should assess church & religious refroms
4.4.7 3rd Proposal = action against Catholics
4.4.8 Proposal = unless C agreed to P approval of ministers they wouldn't provide money
4.4.9 followed 2 weeks angry debates, esp. about bishops
4.4.10 leader of moderates emerged = Edward Hyde
4.4.11 22nd Nov: Commons voted - passed 159:148
4.4.12 proposal to print & distribute it provoked debates & was rejected - MPs worried about demonstrations and disorder
4.4.13 25th Nov: C returned & delayed reply (gave impression of considering) - when replied - presented as moderate defending constitution from radicals
4.5 Attempted Arrest of Five Members, Jan 1642
4.5.1 7th Dec: Pym = Militia Bill (control of army to P) - passed HC but Lords rejected it
4.5.2 Pym's supporters = controlled London Commons Council in elections
4.5.3 C failed to get Lunsford as Commander of Tower - fears C wanted control of soldiers & weapons)
4.5.4 26th Dec: bishops banned from entering Lords
4.5.5 27th Dec: bishops demanded votes be cancelled (proposal to move P out of London rejected)
4.5.6 MPs ordered impeachment = imprisoned in Tower - removed block of support for C making Militia Bill more likely to be passed
4.5.7 rumours of impeachment of queen
4.5.8 3rd Jan: C issued Articles of Impeachment - 5 MPs (Pym, Hampden, Holles, Haseling & Strode) - MPs refused guards into P
4.5.9 4th Jan: attempted arrest of 5 members - had fled = arrest failed (humiliating for C)
4.5.10 Royalists withdrew support from C
4.5.11 attempted arrest = vindicated Pym's claim of army plot & demands about ministers
4.5.12 pop demonstrations against attempted arrests
4.5.13 10th Jan: royal family left for Hampton Court - had lost control of capital = v. important implications for future
4.6 Drift into War, Feb - Aug 1642
4.6.1 Parliamentary Demands Pym = in charge of united Commons 5th Feb: Lords (no bishops) passed Exclusion Bill - C approved 15th Feb: Lords passed Militia Bill, C rejected it - control of army v. important & if lost couldn't regain again 5th Mar: P passed Bill as Ordinance - moderates alarmed = attacked 2 parts of royal prerogative
4.6.2 Kentish Petition Pym & supporters in Commons ordered Petition be burnt & leaders arrested Pym = overconfident - reaction shows how polarised opinion was & difficulty in remaining neutral as those who didn't support = enemy (shows agreement with king v. unlikely)
4.6.3 King's Actions, Feb - June 1642 Feb: Henrietta Maria - Europe with crown jewels to sell = military & financial support (didn't work - 30yrs war still on) Mar: C travelled to York with 200 followers to set up court - geographical divide = negotiations difficult (created 2 rival centres of power trying to get support) April: C took 2,500 soldiers to capture arsenal @ Hull - Hotham (governor) supporter of Pym: shots fired but C returned to York without arsenal
4.6.4 19 Propositions, June 1642 1st June: Pym presented them to MPs; passed both houses & sent to C parliamentary approval of ministers royal children's teachers approved by MPs royal marriages approved by MPs action against Catholics inc. in H of L c approve P proposals for church reforms approve Militia Ordinance punish "evil councillors" C issue formal pardon to 5 members & not violate P privileges again C repied on 18th June: moderate, constitutional monarch defending traditional constitution & church 236 MPs left Westminster - joined C @ York (he had won over moderates) = 302 MPs remained
4.6.5 Calls to Arms late June 1642: C & P = orders for raising armies - C = Commissions of Array (traditional documents used by monarchs before) - P = Militia Ordinance (ordered raising of P armies) Enter text here
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