1.1 Metals are held together with metallic bonds. These special bonds allow the
outer electron(s) of each atom to move freely. This creates a 'sea' of
delocalised (free) electrons throughout the metal which is what gives rise to
many of the properties of metals.
1.2 They all have the same basic properties because they are
held together by a special type of bonding
2 Most metals have high melting and boiling points and high density
2.1 Metals are very hard, dense and lustrous (shiny).
2.2 There's a strong attraction
between the delocalised
electrons and the closely packed
positive ions - causing very
strong metallic bonding.
2.3 Metals have high melting and
boiling points because of these
strong metallic bonds. You need
a lot of energy to break them
2.4 The strength of the metallic bond (and the melting point)
decreases as atomic radius increases
3 Metals have a high tensile
strength (strong and hard to
break) but can also be
hammered in to a different
shape (they're malleable)
4 Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity due to the sea of delocalised electrons which move
freely through the metal carrying the electrical current. They also carry the heat energy through the metal.