Crude Oil

timelord327
Mind Map by timelord327, updated more than 1 year ago
timelord327
Created by timelord327 over 5 years ago
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A mind map about Crude Oil

Resource summary

Crude Oil
1 What is it?
1.1 A Fossil Fuel from underground made of ancient biomass
1.2 A mixture* that can be separated by fractional distillation
1.2.1 What's Fractional Distillation?
1.2.1.1 Fractional Distillation is used to split the crude oil into useful substances e.g. Petrol. It does this by evaporating the CO into a vapour and pumping it into a tower. This rises and condenses at its boiling point in the tower (the top of the tower is cooler than the bottom) This separates the mixture into different liquids (and 1 gas)
1.2.1.1.1 Crude Oil can primarily make:
1.2.1.1.1.1 Bitumen
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Liquids at the bottom of the tower have the highest boiling point
1.2.1.1.1.2 Lubricating Oil
1.2.1.1.1.3 Diesel
1.2.1.1.1.4 Paraffin
1.2.1.1.1.5 Petrol
1.2.1.1.1.5.1 Liquids at the top of the tower have a low boiling point
1.2.1.1.1.6 At the very top at temperatures averaging at about 25 degrees C, LPG (liquid petroleum gas) is produce. This has a boiling point so low it doesn't condense in the tower.
1.2.1.1.1.7 As you go up the tower the Molecules:
1.2.1.1.1.7.1 Are smaller
1.2.1.1.1.7.1.1 Have lower boiling points
1.2.1.1.1.7.1.1.1 Are more Volatile
1.2.1.1.1.7.1.1.1.1 Are less Viscous
1.2.1.1.1.7.1.1.1.1.1 Ignite more easily
1.2.1.1.1.7.1.1.1.1.1.1 Require less oxygen to burn properly
1.2.1.1.2 But these fractions can be distilled further to become more valuable as they are still mixtures
1.2.1.1.2.1 The process is called Cracking
1.2.1.1.2.1.1 And Cracking is?
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Cracking is done by splitting the larger molecules into smaller, more useful ones
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 You do this by evaporating the large molecules and passing the vapours over a hot catalyst. Thermal decomposition breaks some of the bonds to create smaller Hydrocarbons.
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 The result will always end with an alkane and an alkene
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Alkanes: Hydrocarbons with single C-C bonds
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.2 Alkenes: Hydrocarbons with a double C=C bond
1.2.2 *The mixture mainly contains Hydrocarbons, a little bit of sulphur and sulphur compounds
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