EPQ - Edward IV

Laura Clancy
Mind Map by Laura Clancy, updated more than 1 year ago
Laura Clancy
Created by Laura Clancy over 5 years ago
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A-Level EPQ Mind Map on EPQ - Edward IV, created by Laura Clancy on 10/09/2014.

Resource summary

EPQ - Edward IV
1 Elizabeth Woodville
1.1 Married 1st MAY 1464
1.1.1 Announced it at Council of Reading Sept 1464
1.1.1.1 Crowned 26 May 1465
1.2 Angered Warwick and othe Nobles
1.2.1 Warwick wanted his daughter Queen
1.2.2 Commoner - loss of influence
1.2.3 Woodville's given power and titles
1.2.3.1 Liz father became Earl Rivers and became Treasurer. Brother Anthony, lord Scales, Given Lordship of Isle of White. Other Woodville males given lesser titles, but still family became powerful enough to rival the Neville's. Woodiville women however given in marriage to most influential men in country in hope they would make their husbands loyal.
1.3 Promiscuity enabled RIchard to Question his sons legitimacy and ruin them
2 Treatment of Nobility
2.1 York Loyalists
2.1.1 George Neville - Archbishop of York 1467
2.1.1.1 Gargantuan Feast - 6000 guests
2.1.1.1.1 The Household of Edward IV p2
2.1.2 Won many friends, especially in London
2.2 Lancastrian Rebels
2.2.1 2nd Reign - given second chance to cooperate and they took it
2.2.2 Henry still had supporters
2.2.2.1 eg. D of Somerset, D of Exeter
2.2.2.2 Battle of Hexam
2.2.2.2.1 Margaret fled and Hen was captured
2.2.3 Sacked Lancastrian office holders
2.3 Henry VI - Rewarded Favourites
2.3.1 Cades Rebellion
2.3.2 William De La Pole
2.3.3 Edmund Beaufort
2.4 Creates Overlords to control enemy nobles
2.4.1 They worked effectivley
2.4.2 Hastings was an overlord
2.4.2.1 He was next to Buckingham to control him
2.5 Still corruption in Nobility
2.5.1 No Rebellion - Ed was a Strong King
2.6 Was trying to keep to many nobles happy
3 Royal Brothers
3.1 Rebellious George
3.1.1 July 1469 - 'coup detat' staged by Warwick + Clarence. Overthrew 3 of Ed's most trusted Earls taking over government + imprisonment.
3.1.2 Married WKs daughter against Eds command
3.1.2.1 Hoped WK would make him king
3.1.3 Was given half of WKs lands when it was split up
3.1.3.1 He argued for all of it
3.1.4 1478 - executed for treason
3.2 Ambitious Richard
3.2.1 Blame Edward for Tudor?
3.2.1.1 John Gillingham - Richard III: A Medieval Kingship; Argues that the WOTR crisis didn't cause the Tudor take over. 'The more positive assessment of the last dozen years (1471-83) of Edward IVs reign in recent scholarship has led to the conclusion that what happened in 1183 and after ws quite different and unrelated to the struggles of the years between 1455-71
3.2.2 Loyal?
3.2.2.1 Had all reasons to trust Rich. Remained loyal in 1469 and 70 when Ed was driven into exile
3.2.2.2 Fought at Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury defeating Warwick and Lancastians
3.2.2.2.1 Good Service rewarded. Made Admiral of England, Great Chamberlain of England (succeeded Warwick and Clarence) and Constable of England
3.2.3 Disloyalty v Greed
3.3 When Edward became King 1461 made George Duke of Clarence and Richard Duke of Gloucester
3.4 Warwick Land Dispute
4 Confidence in the Monarchy
4.1 Military Skill
4.1.1 Henry VI
4.1.1.1 Didn't lead his men
4.1.1.2 Couldn't Unite Nobles
4.1.1.3 Allowed it to escalate
4.1.2 Remarkable forced march to Tewkesbury to catch up with Marg
4.1.3 Battle of Mortimer's Cross - After the death of his father and brother 18 year old Ed very cleverly took his army to Wales and faced Jasper Tudor on 3rd Feb 1461 and defeated it. The Lancastrians had expected him to attempt to rejoin Warwick in London or go North to avenge his father.
4.1.4 First act as King was to muster all men between 16 and 60
4.2 Assertion of Royal Authority
4.2.1 Henry II - Assertion of Royal Authority
4.3 Popularity
4.3.1 Richard III
4.3.1.1 Henry Tudor could take power by exploiting this
4.4 Ralph Griffiths - Oxford Illustrated History of Britain: 'The Wars of the Roses came close to denying the hereditary basis of the English Monarchy'. Argues that although the Wars 'had done negligible permanent damage to agriculture, trade and industry' they 'had unquestionably undermined confidence in the Monarchy as an institution
4.5 Sir John Fortesque - The Governance of England; (Henry VI Chief Justice of the Bench) Writes of the English Monarchy as the best political system in the world, despite its definite need for reform
4.5.1 Suggested these reforms were actually being made e.g. resumption of former royal estates and effective land endowment of crown
4.6 Gillingham thinks its Richards seizing of the throne from natural heir not WOTR which threatened the hereditary basis of the monarchy
5 Ordinary People's Lives
5.1 Economy
5.1.1 Henry VI
5.1.1.1 Economic Collapse 1449
5.1.1.2 Annus Horribbillis 1450
5.1.1.3 Household
5.1.1.3.1 shabby indigence
5.1.1.3.2 Expensive inneficiency
5.1.1.3.3 'The Weakness of the Monarchy and widespread discontent with the management of the royal house resulted in repeated demands for its reform' on Henry IV - Royal Household Ed IV p7
5.1.1.3.3.1 After 1445 Parliament in charge of regulating money
5.1.1.3.4 Margaret was expensive
5.1.1.3.4.1 Cost £5,560 to get her there 1445
5.1.1.3.4.2 Revenues of nearly £6,700
5.1.2 David Starkey - Revolution Reassessed 1986; 'the revenue base of the crown was transformed and the method of revenue administration radically altered - all withi the last decades of Edward IV's reign
5.1.3 Second Reign
5.1.3.1 Better than 1st
5.1.3.2 Economy was doing better
5.1.3.3 Increased Trade
5.1.3.4 Reorganised revenues from Crown estates. Experimented with methods of improving yields. Promoted more efficient auditing under officials of flexible royal household treasury instead of unadaptable Exchequer (MYERS)
5.1.4 Had enough to rebuild Windsor Castle
5.1.5 Not tax for 8 years
5.1.6 Made Admin more efficient
5.1.7 Reduced the Royal Household
5.1.8 Got Money from Parliament for Wars twice

Annotations:

  • 'Although Edward ran the risk of earning his subjects' displeasure for his abuse of funds, there was enough overall economic recovery to avoid any taxation crisis thanks in large to the Treaty of Picquigny, collection of customs, prevention of piracy , and the absortion of noble land holdings, such as Clarence's, into the crown. The ''Yorkist land revenue experiment'' expanded upon the same principle seen in the seizure of Clarence's lands, retaining noble holdings and offering the stewardship of these estates to local men allied with king as reward for faithful service, encouraging both economic growth and a nonthreatening yet guiding royal presence at the local level from 1471 to 1483(ref2)' Emily Glassard - {pst-1471 ''New Monarchy'' under Edward IV and Henry VII, p43. Carpenter - War of the Roses, p200
5.1.8.1 the wars never happened and he kept the money
5.1.9 'He showed considerable ingenuity in raising money by reviving obsolescent rights and using doubtfully legal devices'

Annotations:

  • http://www.britannica.com - The Second half of Edwards Reign - Alexander Reginald Myers
5.1.10 Paid the cost of country's administration from Crown Estates profits thus freeing him from dependence on subsidies from Parliament
5.2 Trade
5.2.1 Commercial Treaties with; France 1475, Burgundy 1468, Hanseatic League 1474
5.2.2 Became trader himself transporting goods in his own ships and of foreign merchants
5.2.3 Ed invested heavily in wool trade
5.3 Religion
5.4 Crime
5.4.1 Much tougher on crime than Henry
5.4.2 Visited areas of high crime and talked to law offices
5.4.2.1 John Paston (sherriff) wouldn't explain his actions
5.4.2.1.1 Ed Said 'turn up in 3 days or die'
5.4.3 Law enforcement particular problem in Wales/Welsh Marches. Edward used royal estates in the area to set up a council who would act on behalf of his son, the Prince of Wales. It was this council that first subjugated Wales to English rule
5.4.4 Revived ancient customs of sitting 'on the bench'/in judgement in justice
5.5 Edwards Other Successes
5.5.1 Rebuilt St. Georges Chapel, Windsor
5.5.1.1 Seeing it as a Mausoleum for Yorkists (was buried there)
5.5.2 Collected Illuminated Flemish manuscripts
5.5.3 Friend and Patron of printer William Caxton. Book collection became foundation of old Royal Libary
5.5.4 And new great hall at Eltham palace
5.5.5 Was a generous benefactor to Henry VI colleges at Eton and Cambridge
5.6 Was concerned by rising interest in sport instead of archery. passed laws to encourage archery not football or qouits
6 Foreign Policy/International Relations
6.1 Henry VI - French King to losing all but Calais
6.2 War with France
6.2.1 France isn't a threat
6.2.2 Made great preparation 1174 and received large grant from Parliament
6.2.2.1 Invaded 1475 with what was said to be largest army ever left England. Found Burgundy unprepared. France were formidable and able to buy him out
6.2.2.1.1 Treaty of Picquigny - France paid 75, 000 gold crowns up front and pension of 50,000 gold crowns a year. And daughter Elizabeths future marriage to Dauphin
6.2.2.1.1.1 These sums helped Edward to stop relying on Parliamentary grants
6.2.2.1.2 36000 men, 15000 mounted archers
6.2.3 1482 Louis XI tactfully repudiated Treaty of PIcquigny and annual tribute it provided to come to terms with Burgundy.
6.2.3.1 Ed contemplated invasion of France but fell in and died quickly
6.3 1467 - Allied with Burgundy
6.3.1 WK wanted to be allied with France
6.3.1.1 Angered WK
6.4 Richard was responsible for controlling the Scots
6.4.1 Defeated Scots at Alnwich
6.5 TREATY OF YORK 1 jUNE1464
6.5.1 Treaty with Scotland intended to establish peace for 15 years. Practical support from Louis XI of France was unlikely so Scotland had to abandon alliegence to House of Lancaster and make truce with York
6.5.2 WK invaded Norham Castle July 1463 and devastated Scottish borders. MoA and Prince Ed fled Scot to Burg
7 Overall
7.1 Horrax - 'master in his own kingdom'
7.2 1471
7.2.1 Established as King AGAIN
7.3 Crowned 28 June 1461
7.4 Died 9 April 1483
7.5 overshadowed by Henry VII
8 Warwick
8.1 Encouraged by Louis XI WK seized Ed and made him his prisoner July 1469
8.1.1 But Ed had too many supporters now. Regained freedom in October
8.1.1.1 WK fled to France. Allied with Lancastrians and France
8.1.1.1.1 Invaded England Sept 1470
8.1.1.1.1.1 Surprised Ed who fled with Rich into Netherlands in October.
8.1.1.1.1.1.1 Returned March 1471. Took London. Defeated and killed WK at Barnet on 14 April
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Margaret landed in Dorset same day with son Ed. Aimed to raise support in Wales. Became race between Ed and Marg. Met her at Tewkesbury 4 May.
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Nearly all remaining Lancastrian leaders killed or executed and Murder of Henry 21/22 May. Reppelled Attack on London
8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Edwards Secure for remainder for his reign
8.2 Wanted Clarence to marry daughter
8.3 Had Reduced Infliuence
8.4 1467 - Ed Dismissed WK brother from post
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