Glycans

Katie Baugher
Mind Map by Katie Baugher, updated more than 1 year ago
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Biological Roles of Glycans 2017

Resource summary

Glycans
1 History
1.1 Historical Roles
1.1.1 Targeting signals
1.1.2 Cancer progression
1.1.3 Reaggregation of sponge cells
1.1.4 Mediating proteins
1.1.5 Energy production and metabolism
1.2 Knowledge lag in the study of function
1.2.1 More rapidly evolving
1.2.2 Diverse and complex
1.3 Study of genetic alterations in glycosylation in various organisms
1.3.1 Discovery of genetic defect in I-cell disease
1.3.2 Defect in PAPS formation
1.3.3 deficiency of a glycosaminoglycan core galactosyltransferase
1.3.4 Knocking out class or subclass of glycan is fatal, altering outer sugars gives living organism with species-specific defects
2 Important examples in vertebrates
2.1 Sialic acid
2.1.1 Sialoadhesins, or siglecs, are lectin proteins that bind to it
2.1.2 Modulates function of certain proteins
2.2 Mannose
2.2.1 Intraorganismal target signalling
2.3 Mannose 6-phosphate
2.3.1 Intraorganismal target signalling
2.3.2 Mediates transport of enzymes to locations in the lysosome
2.4 Heparin
2.4.1 Interacts with antithrombin
2.4.2 Anticoagulant effect
3 I-cell disease
3.1 Genetic defect in this disease proved the biological importance of the mannose 6 phosphate targeting pathway
3.2 Inhibits body's ability to break down fats
3.3 Causes low muscle tone, developmental delay, and some physical abnormalities.
4 Glycoproteins
4.1 Lectins
4.1.1 Bound by glycans which mediate their function
4.2 Selectins
4.2.1 Cell adhesion molecules
4.2.2 Play a crucial role in leukocyte trafficking
4.3 Galectins
4.3.1 Found in animals
4.3.2 Facilitates crosslinking of the ECM in animals
4.4 Other types of lectins
4.4.1 R - signal targeting, glycoprotein hormone turnover
4.4.2 L protein sorting
4.4.3 P - protein sorting, signal targeting, degradation of glycoproteins
4.4.4 C - cell adhesion, glycoprotein clearance and innate immunity
5 Glycosylation
5.1 Most common form
5.1.1 Nucleocytoplasmic modification
5.1.2 O-type glycosylation
5.2 Congenital disorders
5.2.1 multisystem disorders caused by enzymatic and genetic defects
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