EPQ - Edward IV - Treatment of Nobility

Laura Clancy
Mind Map by Laura Clancy, updated more than 1 year ago
Laura Clancy
Created by Laura Clancy over 5 years ago
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Description

A-Level EPQ Mind Map on EPQ - Edward IV - Treatment of Nobility, created by Laura Clancy on 11/03/2014.

Resource summary

EPQ - Edward IV - Treatment of Nobility
1 Lancastrians/Traitors
1.1 Too Leniant
1.1.1 October 1462 - Margaret of Anjou and Lancastrians (Sir Henry Beaufort, third Duke of Somerset and Pierre de Breze)landed near Bramburgh, Northumberland. Reinforced small garrison at Bamburgh Castle held by Sir Richard Tunstall. 'Sir Ralph Grey of Heton & Chillingham, who had temporarily turned coat for the Yorkists and was entrusted with Dunstanburgh Castle, turned coat back in favour of the Lancastrians, and gave them back DUnstamburgh which they further garrissoned'. After only short siege Alnwick Castle too surrendered due to a shortage of supplies. Now they possessed the three great castles of northern Northumbria

Annotations:

  • Wm. E. Baumgaertner - Squires, Knights, Barons, Kings: War and Politics in Fifteenth Century England, Henry Beaufort, third Duke of Somerset Lancastrian Military Commander
1.1.1.1 This was a serious threat. 3rd Somerset had led Lancastrians in Battles of Wakefield (Jan 1461), 2nd Battle of St Albans (17 Feb 1461), and at defeat Battle of Towton (April 1461). Fled to Scotland with MoA, and other Lancastrian Notables e.g. Sir Henry Holland 2nd Duke of Exeter
1.1.1.2 Seneschal of Normandy = Pierre
1.1.1.3 Dealt with by Sir John Neville. Battle of Hexham destroyed last of Lancastrian force (15 May 1464). Captured Most of Lancastrian Commanders some of which were executed like 3rd Somerset 'With Somersets death the Lancastrians lost there most effective field commander'

Annotations:

  • Squire, Knights, Barons, Kings:etc...SAME AS BEFORE
1.1.1.3.1 Treaty of York 1464/Treaty with Scotland
1.1.1.4 The North was an area of particular weakness. Ed was consistently reluctant to travel to the North. E.g. after the victory of Towton. Ed went straight South rather than consolidating his power to the far north while all his army was there although he might have felt attention was needed more down south
1.1.2 'Had Edward asserted his authority early on and not been reliant on his personality to control the nobility he would've seen less rebellion throughout his reign'

Annotations:

  • http://historically-political.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/assess-seriousness-of-two-problems.html
1.1.3 Should he have executed Henry VI. This would have eliminated the figurehead and lessened the Lancastrian cause minimising the problem. BUT could have caused problems in itself. Would have created a matyr, and there was still Young Prince Ed and could have caused problems in itself
1.1.3.1 'As long as the head of the House of Lancaster was at liberty, the Yorkists could never be confident of their hold on the throne. There was always an alternative King to whom dissidents could turn with a clear concience'

Annotations:

  • A. J. Pollard - Late Medieval England 1399-1509, the First Reign of Edward IV, p273
1.1.4 However when MOA invaded in 1462 failed to gain support. Problem was of foreign help not lancastrians. Suggests Ed successfully reduced threat of domestic rebellion
1.1.5 Ed had a strong desire for conciliation, which he perhaps took too far. 'Anyone who showed a willingness to cooperate was given his chance, whatever the risks implied by his previous record'

Annotations:

  • Charles Derek Ross - Edward IV, p45
1.1.5.1 Lawrence Booth - Bishop of Durham, appointed as his confessor despite having a close relationship with MoA
1.1.5.1.1 Sir Thomas Tuddenham - 'formerly keeper of the wardrobe and treasurer of the household to Henry VI, who had been deeply involved with the Dukes of Suffolk and Somerset, escaped attainder, as did his collaborator, John Heydon, who received a general pardon in April 1462'

Annotations:

  • Charles Derek Ross - Edward IV , p42
1.1.5.1.2 'Gangs of seditious vagabonds roamed through many midland and southern regions, accused of killing, despoiling and oppressing the king's subjects'

Annotations:

  • Charles Derek Ross - Edward IV, p42
1.2 Efficiently
1.2.1 Sacked Lancastrian office holders
1.2.2 WKs lands after rebellion and death. Simultaneously extended crowns influence in local area and rewarded allegiance. Gave significant amount to Brother George as reward for switching allegiance back from H7 and MoA. Remainder went to Duke of Gloucester contributing to the creation of a northern power base and extending royal authority in an area affected by Scottish conflict
1.2.3 His father had treated the nobles harshly, which had led to a lack of support which caused him to lose Battle of Ludford Bridge 1459 and Battle of Wakefield 1460 (where he would die)
1.2.4 Dangers of rewarding nobility too much already proven to be an issue in H7 reign
1.2.5 Created the position of Overlord - these were effective
1.2.5.1 Hastings was an overlord, positioned to control Buckingham
1.2.6 'In spite of the strength of Lancastrian sympathies in Yorkshire, the country offered no resistance to Edward after Towton'

Annotations:

  • Charles Derek Ross - Edward IV, p45
1.2.7 12 February 1462 - Series of commissions appointed to arrest active rebels and enquire into treasons and rebellions. 23 barons, 10 judges to investigate in 25 counties and 8 cities
1.2.7.1 Uncovered Lancastrian plot headed by Earl of Oxford, Aubrey de Vere (his son) and Sir Thomas Tuddenham - Exectuted on Tower Hill
1.2.8 'It could be argued that the policy of reconciliation helped the new regime to survive its first fragile years'

Annotations:

  • A. J. Pollard - Late Medieval England 1399-1509, the First Reign of Edward IV, The New Regime, p273
1.2.8.1 WK appeared to support reconciliation to some extent. Ed reconciled with bitter enemy Duke of Somerset and WK reconciled with bitter enemies Ralph Percy and Humphrey Neville
2 Henry VI had favourites
2.1 'After Edward IV returned to the throne in 1471, the dynamic between him and his nobles contrasted greatly with the ineffective management of Henry VI's impotent reign, as Edward tightened control over the seemingly unwieldy nobility. This addition of a central authority figure, after an essentially leaderless period, provided a necessary point of stability, as nobles had previously asserted their own claims to power in an attempt to remedy the power void at the head of the body politic'

Annotations:

  • Emily Glassford - Post-1471 'New Monarchy' under Edward IV and Henry VII, p5
2.2 Cades Rebellion 1450
2.2.1 Led by Jack Cade against the principles of Henry VI reign. Mainly peasants and small landowners from Kent who were objected to forced labour, corrupt courts, the seizure of land by nobles, the loss of royal lands in France an Heavy taxation. Were welcomed into London after defeating government force sent to destroy them although after the violent behaviour of Cades men the city turned against them
2.2.2 Mob was pardoned by King along with Cade (although he was later killed by Sheriff of Kent)
2.3 William De la Pole - Earl of Suffolk
2.3.1 Knight of Garter 1422
2.3.2 Royal Counsellor and Steward of Royal Household quickly after coming to court in 1430
2.3.2.1 by 1447 Practically Ran government - although would fall from power as Scapegoat for loss of lands in France
2.4 Edmund Beaufort- 2nd Duke of Somerset
2.4.1 1448 - Made Duke of Somerset
2.4.2 Blamed for English losses in France
2.4.3 Rumoured to be father of Prince Ed of Lancaster
3 CONCLUSION
3.1 Ultimately Ed must have secured the overall support of his nobility by 1469. Although he was locked away and Warwick ruling at his palace, the nobility still wouldn't rise to support WK against the rebellions in the North. WK was forced to let Ed go.
4 Won many Friends especially in London
4.1 Rewarded Yorkists, Made George Neville Archbishop of York 1467
4.1.1 Day after coronation Edwards principal followers were ennobled; Viscount Bourgenier became Earl of Essex and Lord Fauconberg became Earl of Kent. Leading Yorkist Retainers made Barons; Sir Walter Deveraux (as Lord Ferrers), Sir William Hastings, Sir William Herbert and Sir Humphrey Stafford of Southwick etc.
4.2 London was essential to controlling England. 'All the structural changes in the 15th century enhanced the dominance of London as the focal point of the English Economy'. It was the only English city that could compete with the Great European cities of Italy and France, and at around 40, 000 was at least four times larger than the principal provincial cities of Biristol, Norwich, York

Annotations:

  • A. J. Pollard - Late Medieval England 1399-1509, p180
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