Approaches & Methodologies to Teaching Emergent Bilinguals

Alex  Summerlin
Mind Map by Alex Summerlin, updated more than 1 year ago
Alex  Summerlin
Created by Alex Summerlin about 2 years ago
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methods and instructional strategies

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Approaches & Methodologies to Teaching Emergent Bilinguals
1 Grammatical Approach
1.1 This approach focuses on the learner memorizing the rules of the language It is a bottom-up philosophy of learning because it follows an extremely specific sequence. . Learners listen to exactly what the teacher does and practice the skills out of context. Within this approach, the speaker's first language are not seen as beneficial to second language development. Instead, the first language is seen as hindering second language acquisition. Teaching of this approach is extremely focused on grammar and memorization.
1.2 Application 1. Rote Memorization tasks 2. Skill & Drill 3. Repetition of phrases 4. Mnemonics
1.3 Grammar-Transition Method
1.3.1 The Grammar-Transition Method was teacher-centered and did not focus on meaning. At first, the teacher would expose a list of linguistic rules to the students. Next, the students would memorize their vocabulary words. Last in the learning, students would apply the rules that they memorized to given sentences or paragraphs depending on the level of their learning.
1.3.2 Application Students would engage in translating sentences or paragraphs for grammatical accuracy.
1.3.3 The Grammar-Transition Method was replaced by the Direct Method in the 1940s (Herrera & Murry)
1.3.3.1
1.3.4 These methods focus on grammar instead of meaning. They also teach memorization and repetition. They also all depict a bottom-up teaching philosophy.
1.3.4.1
1.3.4.2
1.4 Direct Method
1.4.1 This method was developed because its author wanted to create a connection between scientific based teaching and SLA. The direct method was formed on the theory that words are associated with the contexts in which they were learned. In this method, students infer grammar based on carefully sequenced instruction. Students are exposed to grammar patterns through modeling.
1.4.2 Application Teacher models the language and students try to internalize the syntax and grammar. Teacher may provide context through realia (pictures, objects, diagrams)
1.5 Audiolingual Method
1.5.1 This method was developed because of need during WWII. Soldiers going overseas needed a way to learn the language quickly. In this method, students are given dialogue drills that are trying to help them develop grammar structures and vocabulary. It occurs in a sequential manner. This method believes that drills of language structures would result in habit.
1.5.2 Students are listening to vocabulary over and over. They are expected to memorize the syntax and in turn, will have developed a habit of proper grammar.
2 Communicative Approach
2.1 This approach focuses on learning language for the purpose of communicating with others. It is more research based than the grammatical approach. This approach was based on the understanding that memorizing rules and sentences does not help users to communicate because there are infinate combinations of words. The role of the teacher is to create a language rich environment in which communication is for authentic purposes.
2.2 The teacher makes input comprehensible by providing visuals, guarded vocabulary, cooperative learning, and hands-on activities. The teacher may reduce the use of idioms, use realia and manipulatives., teach with big books.
2.3 Silent Way
2.3.1 This method presented learners with simple language interactions that they observed and then described in their own words using the target language. Learners were able to construct their own theory of speaking, writing, listening, and writing.
2.3.2 The teacher models a conversation with a partner. Students then observe, notice, and construct what they can about the language. They describe what they observed using the target language.
2.3.3 This method is different from the grammatical approach because learners were focused on meaning. However, it is similar to the grammatical approach because there is high amounts of feedback.
2.4 Natural Way
2.4.1 Language production follows natural stages. This method is focused on comprehension over perfect speech. There is a focus on lowering the affective filter by creating a low risk environment for learning. This method laid the foundation for the sheltered instruction method.
2.4.2 Teacher speaks in a way that makes input comprehensible. She may slow her speech, use real objects, or use cognates. Then students focus on comprehension.
2.4.3 The Natural Way laid the foundation for Sheltered Instruction.
2.4.4 Both of these methods placed emphasis on creating a low stress environment for lowering the affective filter.
2.4.4.1
2.5 Suggestopedia
2.5.1 This method is focused on individual personality differences within learners. The creator of this method believed that most students and their fear of language learning hindered rapid acquisition. He was concerned with creating a low stress environment.
2.5.2 Students engage in conversation, retelling, and role play.
2.6 Integrated Content-Based Method
2.6.1 This method is focused integrating students' needs academically and lingusitically. The teacher develops content and language objectives. In this method, teachers work to plan a thematic unit. The unit is across all subject areas.
2.6.2 Application A teacher implements a unit that integrates science, math, art, reading, and writing. In it, students research an animals, they build it out of materials, write about it, and discuss it with their peers. They use math to figure out its proportions and make a scale.
2.6.3 Both integrate content and language ACROSS subject areas for enhanced learning. They also use all four language domains.
2.6.3.1
2.7 Sheltered Instruction Method
2.7.1 In this method, language and content objectives are integrated into the same lesson. Using this method helps scaffold CLD students to receiving grade level content but with support. This method uses hands on application and social interaction. It incorporates cooperative learning and visual supports.
2.7.2 The teacher provides preteaching of academic vocabulary to CLD students. Students are given sentence stems to support them using the vocabulary within academic contexts.
2.7.3 Both focus on integrating content and language objectives to support CLD students.
2.7.3.1
3 Cognitive Approach
3.1 This approach began to make connections to the way the brain operates and how learning occurs. This model began to look at the learner as an active participant instead of passive in the language acquisition process. This method began to think about how the learner's background knowledge and experiences affected language learning. It took into account how the learner might attach new learning to old learning.
3.2 Application Cooperative learning, explicit LS instruction, maximizing content and language objectives. The teacher may use a KWL chart, questioning, word walls, outlines, etc.
3.3 CALLA Method
3.3.1 This method integrates the need for authentic communication and the need for comprehension of academic discourse. This method has three steps. It teaches topics from major content areas, development of academic language skills, and explicit instruction of learning strategies (Herrera & Murry). It is taught across the four domains of speaking, listening, writing, and reading and is beneficial for all students.
3.3.2 An integrated unit that focuses on identifying and describing story elements across familiar stories and writing composition during writing workshop. students work together to discuss and sort character, setting, and beginning, middle, and end. They then apply their knowledge by writing a fictional narrative during a writing workshop unit.
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