ESL Approaches and Methods

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ESL Approaches and Methods
1 Approaches
1.1 Grammar Based
1.1.1 structure-based deductive Grammar Based Approach explicit grammar/rule based instruction consistent error correction memorization of grammar, rules, and vocabulary practice use of grammar, rules, and vocabulary
1.1.2 teacher centered
1.1.3 used to be predominant teaching approach
1.1.4 behaviorism
1.1.5 Methods Grammar-Translation Method language rules presented memorization of vocabulary practice of rules and vocabulary through written text focused on grammar accuracy replaced by direct method Direct Method focused on repetition and memorization of language patterns inferred grammar through guided instruction teacher modeled/student practiced to internalize patterns taught in context, use of somevisual aids translating in students 1st language was a no no Audiolingual Method reinforced production and error correction through feedback development of grammatical structure and vocabulary through practice practice of pattern drills and dialougue
1.1.6 knowing structure of language instead how to use langauge
1.1.7 ineffective approach
1.2 Communicative
1.2.1 meaning-based inductive learner interacts with environment learner gathers comprehensible input comprehensible input is put with newly presented material (ZPD) self created language hypotheses are tested language acquisition occurs
1.2.2 research/theory based
1.2.3 language is acquired through use of language in meaningful communication and experiences
1.2.4 social constructivisism
1.2.5 born with LAD, understanding of universal grammar
1.2.6 student centered teachers provide language rich environment to foster language acquisition rather than error correction
1.2.7 Methods Earlier Methods silent way learner is presented with linguistic situations learner observes situation learner describes situation in target language teacher remains silent, encouraging learner to engage in communication natural way teacher creates comprehensible language to meet the ZPD of learners comprehension outweighs production language production comes in stages language goals guide instruction activities should lower affective filter foundation for sheltered method instruction suggestopedia teacher creates relaxing environment (music) learner reads in 1st language teacher replaces 1st language text with target language and visual aids learners use scaffolding techniques to make sense of target language criticized as memorization Contemporary Methods integrated content-based curriculum is based on learners academic and linguistic needs teaching across curriculum while emphasizing content and language objectives sheltered instruction integrates both content and language objectives in lesson content is grade level with many scaffolding strategies used providing comprehensible input widely implemented 30 indicators of best practices
1.3 Cognitive
1.3.1 meaning-based inductive
1.3.2 structure and nature
1.3.3 lead to development of CALLA
1.3.4 types of knowledge declarative knowledge = schemata = prior knowledge procedural knowledge = production system = if/then conditional knowledge = schemata = when, why, where metacognitive knowledge = higher order thinking = acquired knowledge
1.3.5 long-term, short-term, & working memory memory used to hold information to make sense of presented material
1.3.6 method CALLA enriches language appropriate for all levels of proficiency 3 major components topics about domain content areas development of CALP explicit instruction extensive contextual support & reduced linguistic demands targets content/language acquistion & all 4 literacy domains
1.3.7 student centered
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