ESL Teaching Approaches & Methods

Myra Austin
Mind Map by Myra Austin, updated more than 1 year ago
Myra Austin
Created by Myra Austin about 4 years ago
82
1

Description

This mind map highlights various approaches and methods used for teaching ESL.

Resource summary

ESL Teaching Approaches & Methods
1 Process Writing

Annotations:

  • "In process writing, students learn that writing involves thinking, reflection, and multiple revisions.  Teachers model writing process by thinking aloud about their own ideas, jotting them down, organizing them, developing a draft, reading it aloud, making revisions, asking students for their comments, and continuing to make more revisions.  Process writing is recommended in CALLA classrooms for all types of writing in all content areas" (Chamot, p. 14, 2009).
2 Communicative Approach

Annotations:

  • "The communicative approach focuses on learning language through and for communication." It assumes that "language production contains an infinite number of possible language combinations, so memorizing patterns and rules does little to prepare language learners for authentic language use.  This approach emerged in the 1960's and replaced the Grammar approach" ( Herrera & Murry, 2010, p. 199).
2.1 Integrated Content Based (ICB)

Annotations:

  • "The ICB method involves the concurrent teaching of academic subject matter and second language acquisition skills.  The language curriculum is based directly on students' academic and linguistic needs" (Herrera & Murry, pp. 206-207).
2.2 Sheltered Instruction

Annotations:

  • "Sheltered lessons integrate language and content objectives into the same lesson.  Content objectives are typically derived from the curriculum, as aligned with local, state, or national standards.  Language objectives are best derived from practice standards for CLD students, such as the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) standards" (Herrera & Murry, p. 207, 2010).
2.2.1 Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)

Annotations:

  • "In the design and implementation of appropriate content-based lessons for CLD students, the SIOP model considers the following three critical aspects of the teaching process: preparation, instruction, and review and assessment.  SIOP explores the spectrum of teaching practices through the examination of thirty essential indicators (Herrera & Murry, p. 284, 2010).
2.2.2 Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English(SDAIE)

Annotations:

  • "For CLD students who have attained an intermediate or advanced level of proficiency in L2 (English), SDAIE emphasizes cognitively demanding, grade-level appropriate core curricula.  SDAIE stresses comprehensible input; guarded vocabulary; hands-on interaction; and the use of supplementary materials, especially visuals" (Herrera & Murry, p. 282, 2010)
2.3 Silent Way

Annotations:

  • "The silent way presented learners with simple linguistic situations that they were to observe and then describe in the target language, focusing especially on the actions they witnessed.  The first language of learners was not used and the teacher emphasized the pronunciation and word flow of the learner's descriptions while encouraging target language production" (Herrera & Murry, p. 204, 2010).
2.4 Natural Way

Annotations:

  • "Language instruction in the natural way followed a specific order.  First, the teacher created a situation in which communication was made meaningful.  Then the teacher communicated information in the target language.  The teacher simultaneously modified the language to a level at which the leaners could understand the messages of instruction.  One way the teacher accomplished this was to ensure that instruction was adapted in such a way that language input was comprehensible" (Herrera & Murry, p. 205, 2010).
2.5 Suggestopedia

Annotations:

  • "A suggestopedia lesson typically involved music playing in the background.  First, students would read a translation of text in their first language.  Then the instructor would remove the translation and present the same text in the target language.  Visual aids would support the meaning of the text.  Students would work with the text through conversations, retelling, and role playing (Herrera & Murry, p. 205, 2010). 
3 Cognitive Approach

Annotations:

  • This approach sees "the learning process as active versus passive, dynamic versus static.  This view holds that learning (at minimum" involves (a) information selection from the environment; (b) information categorization and organizations; (c) the relation of new information to known concepts, categories, and premises; (d) the use of information in appropriate contexts; and (e) metacognition on the process. This approach is an emerging approach. (Herrera & Murry, 2010, p. 213).  It has not replaced the Communicative approach, but has taken a different avenue to teaching SLA.   
3.1 Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach(CALLA)

Annotations:

  • "The CALLA method is designed to enrich the language that CLD students use for academic communication [and] further the abilities of CLD students capacities to be academically successful in those subject areas.  [CALLA method] includes three primary components: topics from major content areas, the development of academic language skills, and explicit instruction in learning strategies.  Among learning strategies emphasized are cognitive, metacognitive, and social/affective strategies" (Herrera & Murry, p. 219, 2010).
4 Inquiry Approach

Annotations:

  • "Inquiry is based on learner-centered activities in which students construct understanding of ideas and relationships."  In this approach "teachers foster higher-order thinking skills by asking challenging questions, modeling the learning process, and engaging in interactive dialogue with students.  Inquiry is compatible with the CALLA model because both are learner-centered and provide experiential learning that helps students build on their prior knowledge" (Chamot, pp. 15-16, 2009). 
5 Standards Based Instruction

Annotations:

  • "Instruction based on national and/or state standards for each content subject area identifies what students should know and be able to do in relation to that content subject at each grade level.  The standards were originally developed by teams of educators within the national professional teachers association.  In 1997, the ESL professional association TESOL, published its standards for the teaching of English K-12 in the United States.  [The] English language proficiency standards provide an excellent template for organizing CALLA instruction" (Chamot, p. 16, 2009).
6 Grammar Approach

Annotations:

  • "The grammatical approach is a teacher-centered means of providing second language instruction."  The underlying philosophy  assumes learners acquire language most efficiently by memorizing language rules and sentence patterns in a methodical, sequenced curriculum.  This approach was the predominate means of teaching second languages for thousands of years.   (Herrera & Murry, 2010, p. 195).
6.1 Audiolingual Method

Annotations:

  • "[This] method presented pattern drills and dialogue designed to develop grammatical structures and vocabulary in a highly sequential manner.  Teachers reinforced accurate production and error correction through consistent feedback" (Herrera & Murry, p.198, 2010).
6.2 Grammar Translation

Annotations:

  • "In this method, the teacher first presented language rules to students.  Then the students memorized a vocabulary list.   Finally, the students applied the language rules and exceptions, as well as vocabulary terms, to translation of written texts" (Herrera & Murry, p. 198, 2010). 
6.3 Disputation Method

Annotations:

  •  This method "emphasized the memorization and application of language rules and structures.  The instructor would first read language treaties to the students explaining each point in simple language.  Next, the instructor would present a series of questions and then subsequently answer the question through instruction.  Finally, the instructor would pose questions to the students, and the students would respond with memorized answers to demonstrate their mastery of language rules" (Herrera & Murry, 2010, p 197).
6.4 Direct Method

Annotations:

  • "In [this] method, students inferred grammar through exposure to carefully sequenced guided instruction in the target language.  According to this method, teachers would model and students would practice language patterns, with the goal of internalizing grammatical patterns.Vocabulary was taught in context through dialogues and choral responses." Translations were heavily discourage in this method because it was believe to be a distraction for learning the target language. (Herrera & Murry, p. 198, 2010).
7 Balanced Reading

Annotations:

  • "A balanced reading approach combines phonics instruction with reading authentic texts that include both stories and informational writing.  The CALLA model espouses this type of literacy approach in which the teacher discovers how individual students learn best, finds out how (or if) they learned to read in their first language, and differentiates instruction accordingly" (Chamot, p. 14, 2009).
8 Literacy across the Curriculum

Annotations:

  • The language experience approach "focuses on the language demands of content subjects and seeks to integrate literacy and content instruction.  In a Literacy Across the Curriculum model, all teachers, including science, mathematics, and history/social studies teachers, carry out language-development activities associated with their individual content areas." Parallels between this model and CALLA are that language skills are developed and practiced in all subjects. (Chamot, p. 13, 2009).
9 Cooperative Learning

Annotations:

  • "In cooperative learning, students work in carefully selected and organized groups on learning tasks that are structured so that all students share in the responsibility for completing tasks.  For English language learners, the benefits of cooperative learning include additional practice with academic English, the use of first language to draw on prior knowledge, the incorporation of content into ESL classes, and the opportunity for students to become more independent learners.  Cooperative learning is an integral part of CALLA lessons" (Chamot, pp. 14-15, 2009).
10 Language Experience Approach

Annotations:

  • "In the Language Experience approach, student learn that what is said can be written down and that what has been written can be read.  In this approach, students talk about personal experiences...the student and perhaps other classmates use the written account as a reading text."  The LEA has the same principles as CALLA. (Chamot, p. 13, 2009). 
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