The Scientific Method

joannebailey
Mind Map by joannebailey, updated more than 1 year ago
joannebailey
Created by joannebailey about 6 years ago
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Leaving Certificate, the scientific method study help

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The Scientific Method
  1. The steps of the scientific method
    1. 1. Observation
      1. An observation is when something is noticed
      2. 2. Hypothesis
        1. An educated guess based on an observation
        2. 3. Experimentation
          1. An experiment is designed to test a hypothesis
          2. 4. Collection and interpretation of data
            1. Data consists of measurements, observations or info gathered from experiments
            2. 5. Conclusion
              1. A summary of the results of an experiment
              2. 6. Relating the conclusion to existing knowledge
                1. Supported if results agree fully
                  1. Changed if results agree only partly
                    1. Rejected if results contradict
                    2. 7.Reporting and publishing the results
                      1. Scientific journals, magazines, world wide web
                    3. Theories and principles
                      1. A theory is a hypothesis that has been supported by many different experiments
                        1. A principle or law arises from a theory that has been shown to be valid when fully tested over a long period of time
                        2. Principles of experimentation
                          1. 1. Careful planning and design
                            1. Only a single variable should be tested
                            2. 2. Ensure that the experiment is safe
                              1. E.g- tie long hair back, wear a lab coat
                              2. 3. Design a control experiment
                                1. A control is used to provide a comparison against which the actual experiment can be judged
                                  1. Placebo pill
                                2. 4. Experiments must be fair
                                  1. Sample size as large as possible, random selection, replications must be possible, double blind testing
                                3. Limitations of the value of the scientific method
                                  1. The extent of our knowledge
                                    1. A basic amount of knowledge is required
                                    2. The basis of investigation
                                      1. A badly designed experiment will lead to poor results
                                      2. Interpreting results
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