Innate Immunity

Mind Map by GraceEChem, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by GraceEChem about 5 years ago


Innate responses will be in shades of blue. Anything in red is associated with the adaptive responses.

Resource summary

Innate Immunity
1 Antigens
1.1 Invoke immune responses (B-cell)
1.2 "Antibody generators"
2 WBCs
2.1 Innate: macrophages, respond to all
2.2 Adaptive: B & T cells, specific response
3 Skin barrier
3.1 pH
3.2 Shedding
3.3 [NaCl]
4 Mucous Membranes
4.1 lysozyme (attack cell wall)
4.2 lactoferrin (sequesters Fe)
4.3 Lactoperoxidase (superoxide radicals)
5 Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs)
5.1 Cationic peptides (highly conserved, damage bacteria pm)
5.1.1 1st class (a-helic, no cysteine, prod by macrophages) Cathelicidin (LL-37) Protect kidney in UT w/neutrophils Humans protected by zwitterionic (0 charge) membranes
5.1.2 2nd class: Defensins (disulfide linked, neutrophils, epithelial) Kill phagocytosed bact. by binding to membrane and forming pores for lysis
5.1.3 3rd class: larger, enriched for specific am. ac. Histatin In saliva, anti-fungal (c. albicans)
5.2 Bacteriocins
5.2.1 Produced by normal flora Lethal to related species Colicins (E. coli) form pores & binds to specific recptors (porins)
6 Complement System
6.1 Major activities
6.1.1 Defense against bacterial infections
6.1.2 Crosstalk b/w innate and adaptive immunity
6.1.3 Disposing waste
6.2 Opsonization
6.2.1 Decorating microbes with "opsonins" for recognition by phagocytic cells Stimulates macrophages for phagocytosis
6.3 Activation of C proteins
6.3.1 Enzymatic cleavage C#b proteins bind to complex C#a proteins diffuse to be inflammatory mediators (binds to receptor)
6.4 Functions
6.4.1 Opsonization (C3b)
6.4.2 Inflammation (C#a)
6.4.3 Cell lysis via MAC
6.5 The Three Pathways
6.5.1 Alternative Antibody-independent, initiated by foreign cell surfaces C3 cleaves to C3 convertase C3 convertase cleaves with C3 to C5 converstase C5 goes to be the MAC
6.5.2 Lectin Lectin or Mannose-Binding Lecting (MBL) binds to carbohydrates 2 serine protesase (MASP-1, MASP-2) Activates with C3 and Lectin Mannose Binding Proteins (MBP) on pathogen surfaces Enhance phagocytosis
6.5.3 Classical Initiated by forming Ag-Ab (Antigen-Antibody) complex Part of Acquired & not as fast Produces cleavage products that help in: Opsonization Chemotaxis MAC C1 is activated when bound to antibody Yields C2 & C4 C4a diffuses C2a diffuses C4b and C2b become C3
6.6 Complement Proteins
6.6.1 C3b Opsonin
6.6.2 C#a Show immune cells infection site Recruit macrophages & neutrophils
6.6.3 C5b Form MAC for lysis
7 Pathogen Recognition
7.1 Opsonin-Independent Mechanism
7.1.1 Pathogen recognition, specific and non
7.1.2 Mediated by: Lectin-carbohyd Protein-protein Hydrophob Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) Detected by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) Can trigger phagocytes Toll Like Recptors (TLRs) Signaling recptors Recognize/bind unique PAMPS Triggers signal to initiate host response LPS in Gram - Peptidoglycan in Gram + Binding activates NFkB transcription factor (Key for Cytokine gene transcription) Cytokine Acts as signal molecule Recognized by receptors on immune cell Trigger their function
8 Intracellular Digestion (Phagocytosis)
8.1 Autophagy
8.1.1 Tags internal microbes for destruction w/Ubiquitin Phagophore encircles Fuse with lysosome to degrade
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