ASPECTS OF TRAINING

rosiestevenson
Mind Map by rosiestevenson, updated more than 1 year ago
rosiestevenson
Created by rosiestevenson about 5 years ago
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GCSE PE

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ASPECTS OF TRAINING
1 Training Thresholds
1.1 measure by heart rate
1.2 'minimum amount of exercise that will improve physical fitness'
1.3 to be effective, must be sufficient frequency, intensity + duration
1.4 AEROBIC THRESHOLD
1.4.1 low intensity high duration
1.4.2 heart is able to supply oxygen to muscles
1.4.3 60-80% maximum heart rate
1.4.4 aka aerobic/target zone
1.4.5 improves cardiovascular fitness
1.5 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD
1.5.1 above 80% MHR
1.5.2 heart cannot supply enough oxygen to muscles
1.5.3 improves muscles ability to work well w/o oxygen when lactic acid present
1.5.4 aka training zone
1.5.5 improves speed strength & power
1.6 CALCULATIONS: 220 - AGE then find percentage
1.7 ... and PRINCIPLES
1.7.1 SPECIFICITY
1.7.1.1 the type of activity you train for governs the threshold you work at e.g. sprinting or long distance
1.7.2 PROGRESSION
1.7.2.1 percentage HR max you work at depends on where you are in your training programme and your fitness
1.7.3 REVERSIBILITY
1.7.3.1 training at a lower % HR than usual training will result in decline in fitness
1.7.4 OVERLOAD
1.7.4.1 work at higher intensities in either threshold to see an improvement
1.8 REPS & SETS
1.8.1 REPS
1.8.1.1 number of times you perform an exercise
1.8.1.2 to improve ENDURANCE : high reps, low weights
1.8.1.2.1 to improve STRENGTH : low reps, high weights
1.8.2 SETS
1.8.2.1 number of times you repeat the block of reps
1.8.3 increasing reps and sets can increase intensity and stresses on body (overload) which will further progress specific area being trained
1.9 REST AND RECOVERY
1.9.1 reduces risk of injury
1.9.2 reduces stress levels
1.9.3 prevents decrease in motivation
1.9.4 prevents loss of appetite
1.9.5 prevents tedium
1.9.6 replenishes glycogen stores in muscles
1.9.7 allows body to adapt
1.9.7.1 muscle hypertrophy - protein
1.10 OVERTRAINING
1.10.1 SIGNS
1.10.1.1 insomnia
1.10.1.2 loss of appetite
1.10.1.3 insecurity
1.10.1.3.1 personality change
1.10.1.4 loss of skills
1.10.2 REDUCTION
1.10.2.1 PERIODISATION
1.10.2.1.1 designated rest time
1.10.2.1.2 applying a variety of training types
1.10.2.1.3 varying the way the same muscles are used
2 Training Methods
2.1 each works the body differently to stop tedium and improve different systems and components of fitness. Specificity also steers athletes towards a particular method
2.2 reduces risk of overtraining by adapting to different lengths of work, changing muscle groups/ fitness components/systems to delay fatigue
2.3 each aim to improve fitness, skills and technique
2.4 CIRCUIT TRAINING
2.4.1 MIXTURE OF HIGH AND LOW INTENSITIES
2.4.2 involves resistance training and body conditioning to target specific areas like strength, component of muscular endurance
2.4.3 a circuit is one completion of all activities in programme - time between is often short
2.4.4 this helps cardio endurance and overall fitness as there's a short recovery time
2.4.5 improves power, flexibility, strength, endurances & agility
2.4.6 a basic level improves heart and lung general fitness as long as rests are short
2.4.6.1 can be adapted to incorporate skills for particular game SPECIFICITY
2.4.7 DISADVS
2.4.7.1 only improves general fitness at a basic level
2.4.7.2 skills could be performed incorrectly
2.4.7.3 not a high enough level of skill for top class athletes to benefit
2.5 STRENGTH TRAINING
2.5.1 improves cardio & musc stamina via resistance training
2.5.2 STRENGTH : heavy weights few reps
2.5.2.1 POWER : medium reps medium weights
2.5.2.2 ENDURANCE : low weights many reps
2.5.3 BENEFICIAL FOR RUGBY, ROWING, WEIGHTLIFTING, THROWING ATHLETICS
2.5.4 use a machine or free (might need a spotter)
2.5.5 relies on good testing to find appropriate intensity level
2.5.5.1 important to keep to a planned num of sets and reps to keep safe & reduce risk of injury
2.5.5.2 space & equipment shared so coordination and flexibility needed
2.5.6 regular training improves muscles ability to lift weights
2.5.6.1 as body adapts progression overload and FID apply so weights reps &sets gradually increase allowing muscles to improve
2.5.6.1.1 lifting 60-80% of max you can keeps you in target zone, each session no more than 45 mins
2.6 CONTINUOUS TRAINING
2.6.1 keeps heart and pulse rate high over sustained length of time
2.6.2 improves only aerobic system as exercise is sustained for long times
2.6.3 running, cycling or swimming over distance for <30 mins so burns body fat and improves aerobic fitness
2.6.3.1 requires monitored training involves little skill work - may seem boring TEDIUM
2.6.4 SPORTS THAT WOULD USE IT
2.6.4.1 cycling
2.6.4.2 swimming
2.6.4.3 exercise classes (aerobics)
2.6.4.4 running/jogging
2.6.4.5 ENDURANCE ATHLETES e.g. marathon
2.6.5 PRINCIPLES
2.6.5.1 after some sessions, body will've adapted to strains of exercise
2.6.5.2 checking pulse during will show if its in 60-80% zone showing heart has got stronger
2.6.5.3 speed should be increased to get pulse into target zone so training is still effective
2.6.5.4 for better performers, greater stresses required to see improvement,
2.6.5.4.1 80-90% for 15-20mins takes effect
2.7 FARTLEK TRAINING
2.7.1 blend of continuous and interval can include walking, brisk walking, jogging, steady running etc
2.7.1.1 literally "speed play"
2.7.2 improves both anaerobic and aerobic
2.7.2.1 involves many changes of speed, repeated
2.7.2.1.1 can be adapted for running, skiing or cycling and can be done on fields (cones) or streets (lampposts or houses as markers0
2.7.3 beneficial to games players due to many pace changes during a game
2.7.3.1 changing mixtures of speeds can adapt fartlek to your spirt and energy system you work on SPECIFICITY
2.7.3.2 OVERLOAD increase duration or intensity or terrain e.g. mountain or sand
2.7.4 DISADVS
2.7.4.1 up to performer to give 100% as coach can't really tell although they do decide speed
2.7.4.2 self motivation is key
2.8 INTERVAL TRAINING
2.8.1 alternating between hard exercise and rest/ short and long bursts of exercise
2.8.2 develops speed and endurance
2.8.2.1 SPORTS IT SUITS
2.8.2.1.1 running
2.8.2.1.2 skating
2.8.2.1.3 cycling
2.8.2.1.4 swimming
2.8.2.1.5 unsuitable for endurance events
2.8.3 involves running cycling sprinting and jogging
2.8.4 DISADVS
2.8.4.1 increases risk of overtraining
2.8.4.2 due to variation of ability its more individual, harder in groups
2.8.5 SPECIFICITY
2.8.5.1 periods of work and rest imitate a game situation to help improve areas of weakness and help adapt to game environment
2.8.6 PROGRESSION
2.8.6.1 keeps performer improving as skills and techniques progress
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