GCSE Chemistry C1.2 - Limestone & Building Materials

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Limestone and building materials, C1.2
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GCSE Chemistry C1.2 - Limestone & Building Materials
1 Limestone
1.1 Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) also known as Limestone is a sedimentary rock. This can be obtained by quarrying and cut into blocks. It is used as a building material to build walls of houses.
1.1.1 Advanatages of quarrying:
1.1.1.1 Creates Jobs
1.1.1.1.1 Supplies limestone for glass, stell, cement industries in the area
1.1.1.1.1.1 Increases business for local workers.
1.1.2 Disadvantages of quarrying:
1.1.2.1 Destroys habitats
1.1.2.1.1 Noise pollution
1.1.2.1.1.1 Dust pollution
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Destroys landscape
1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Dust will destroy local farmers crops
1.2 Thermal Decomposition
1.2.1 Calcium carbonate decomposes on heat to produce calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. This reaction is known as thermal decomposition
1.2.2 Other metal carbonates also undergo thermal decomposition, also producing a metal oxide and carbon dioxide gas.
1.3 Reaction of calcium hydroxide
1.3.1 Calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. This reaction is used as a test for carbon dioxide gas (if the limewater AKA Calcium hyrdoxide turns cloudy, the test is positive for carbon dioxide).
2 Cement, Mortar, Concrete
2.1 Cement - Powdered limestone and powered clay are mixed in a rotary kiln to produce dry cement.
2.2 Mortar = Cement + sand +water
2.3 Concrete = Aggragate (crushed rock) + sand + water
3 Reacting Metal Carbonates
3.1 Metal carbonates + acid --> Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide
3.1.1 e.g) Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid --> Calcium Chloride + Water + Carbon Dioxide
3.1.1.1 This means that over time, the metal carbonate, calcium carbonate can be eroded away by acid rain having the potential to destroy buildings.
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