Causes of the Northern Rebellion 1569

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Mind Map by BethanMayStevenson, updated more than 1 year ago
BethanMayStevenson
Created by BethanMayStevenson over 5 years ago
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A2 History Mind Map on Causes of the Northern Rebellion 1569, created by BethanMayStevenson on 01/19/2015.

Resource summary

Causes of the Northern Rebellion 1569
1 political and social
1.1 courtly conspiracy
1.1.1 there was a suggestion of possible courtly conspiracy centred on the Duke of Norfolk and other members of the conservative nobility
1.1.2 the arrival of Mary Queen of Scots in England had destabilised the political situation in England and focused attention of the succession again
1.1.3 the Duke of Norfolk had been approached by agents acting on behalf of Queen Mary that the two might marry
1.1.3.1 and that, consequently, Mary would return to the Scottish thrown and any children of the marriage would be next in line to the throne
1.1.3.2 slight issue with the plan- Mary was already married
1.1.3.2.1 Moreover, Norfolk's interest in the plan was treasonable and Elizabeth's response when she found out was volcanic
1.1.3.2.1.1 Norfolk, who had left the court without permission, was summoned back and threw himself on the Queen's mercy
1.1.3.2.1.2 perhaps Elizabeth can be blamed for the revolt because she forced the earls into a position where they felt the rebellion was inescapable
1.1.4 it's quite clear that the Earl of Westmorland, Norfolk's brother-in-law, and the Earl of Northumberland were aware of the plan
1.1.4.1 it has been asserted, for example by Wallace MacCaffrey and Norman Jones, that the failure of the plan was the event that forced them into rebellion
1.1.4.1.1 the issue with this argument is that there is virtually no direct evidence to back it up
1.1.4.1.1.1 it is certainly not supported by the actions of the rebels, who made no attempt to turn south to pressurise the government
1.1.4.1.1.2 as Krista Kesselring has argued, 'whil the Norfolk marriage plan cannot safely be treated as a direct cause of rebellion, it very directly increased Elizabeh's fears and contributed to the more general sense of crisis that gave rise to the revolt'
1.2 militant associates
1.2.1 the resolve of the rebel leaders may certainly have been stiffened by the militancy of their associates, including Richard Norton and Christopher Neville
1.2.1.1 moreover, the Countess of Westmorland seems to have shamed the rebel leaders into rising when they had considered withdrawing
1.2.1.1.1 'we and our country were shamed for ever, and that we must seek holes to creep into'
1.2.1.1.1.1 this was the interpretation that was shared even by the Crown's own servants who tended to assume that 'these simple earls' had been pushed into rebellion by their more militant associates
1.3 feudal loyalties
1.3.1 to some extent, there were feudal loyalties to the ancient houses of Percy and Neville
1.3.1.1 certainly the pardon patents issued after the rebellion listed numerous tenants of the Percy and Neville estates
1.3.1.1.1 however, it would be an oversimplification to view the rebels' actions simply in these terms
1.4 local and specific factors
1.4.1 downplaying the wider political situation means that the more local and specific factors need to be emphasised
1.4.1.1 the rebel earls felt very deeply a sense of dishonour through being cut out of the northern government
1.4.1.2 moreover, the earls had no influence in Court
1.4.1.2.1 Northumberland was also bitter that the Crown had allegedly ridden roughshod over his claim to mineral rights
1.4.1.2.2 in addition, their relatives had been deprived of minor offices
1.4.1.2.2.1 for example, Westmorland's uncle, Christopher Neville, had lost the right to lead into battle the tenants of the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral and was 'sore offended'
2 religious
2.1 the earls were clearly motivated by religion
2.1.1 Westmorland, in particular, resented the Protestant establishment being imposed in Durham by Bishop Pilkington and Dean Whittingham
2.1.1.1 it is significant in this context that on the 14th November Richard Norton carried the Five Wounds banner into Durham Cathedral
2.1.1.1.1 not only was Norton demonstrating his religious conservatism, he was also explicitly linking the actions of the rebels of 1569 with those of the 1536 rebellion, the Pilgrimage of Grace, who had used the badge as their symbol
2.2 religious motivation from ordinary participants was vital
2.2.1 in the diocese of Durham, particularly, radical Protestants had been established in key posts and had pushed religious reform with no concern for conservative sensitivities
2.2.1.1 a typical example of this was the dispute about the replacement of the alter by a communiion table in the parish church at Sedgefield in County Durham
2.2.1.1.1 the inhabitants at Sedgefield participated in the rebellion in large numbers
2.2.1.1.2 the Dean and Chaptr of Durham had allegedly discriminated against Catholic tenants and there was much desecration of the symbols of the Catholicism
2.2.1.1.2.1 for example, the Bishop Pilkington vandalised the collegiate church of St Andrew, Bishop Auckland and Dean Whittingham desecrated the Cathedral's holy water stoups by having them used in the kitchen
2.2.2 most importantly, there was a conscious destruction of the last vestiges of the cult of St Cuthbert
2.2.2.1 Mrs Whittingham burned the banner of St Cuthbert 'in the notable contempt and disgrace of all ancient and godly relics'
2.2.2.1.1 causing huge offence
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