Chapter 11: Biology & Conservation Biology

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AP Environmental Science (Chapter 11) Mind Map on Chapter 11: Biology & Conservation Biology, created by ttzirogravity on 02/02/2015.

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Chapter 11: Biology & Conservation Biology
1 Biodiversity: The sum total of all organisms in an area, taking into account the diversity of species, genes, populations, & communities.
1.1 Ecosystem Diversity: Varieties above species, i.e. communities, habitats, landscapes
1.1.1 Adaptive Radiation: the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches.
1.2 Species Diversity: number/variety of species
1.2.1 Species richness: number of species
1.2.2 Species Evenness/Relative Abundance: the extent to which numbers of individuals of different species are equal or skewed.
1.3 Genetic Diversity: the variation in DNA composition among individuals within a species.
1.3.1 Taxonomists: scientists who classify species using an organism's physical appearance and genetic makeup to determine it's specues.
1.3.2 Taxonomy Levels: Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species (Do Kids Play Cards On Friday Game Shows?)
1.3.3 Inbreeding Depression: when genetically similar parents mate and produce weak/defective offspring.
1.4 Biodiversity Distribution
1.4.1 Latitudinal Gradient: Closer to equator, more biodiversity, and vice versa.
1.4.2 Generalists: Species that can deal with a wide range of circumstances but that do no single thing very well
1.4.3 Specialists: Species that need specific things inside their niches to survive.
2 Ecotones: Where habitats intermix
3 Habitat Heterogeneity: Human disturbance that causes an increase in habitat diversity
4 Primary causes of population decline and species extinction
4.1 Habitat Alteration: Human interference on habitats via farming, grazing, clear cutting forests. Most affected - Temperate grassland
4.2 Invasive Species: The introduction of a non-native species to new environments, which can push native species to extinction.
4.3 Pollution: Human carelessness with materials & chemicals has caused habitat destruction, acidification, and cultural eutrophocation.
4.4 Overharvesting: High predation/hunting of a species that leads to extinction. Particular in K-strategists
4.5 Climate Change (global warming): This is the manipulation of our climate system via air pollution and ozone depletion.
5 Benefits of Biodiversity
5.1 Provides food, fuel and fiber
5.2 Provides shelter & building materials
5.3 Stabilizes Earth's Climate
5.4 Pollinates plants, including many crops
5.5 Controls pests & diseases
5.6 Biodiversity provides a variety of drugs and medicines vital to today's medical practices.
5.7 Tourism
6 Keystone Species: A species in an ecosystem that holds the system together
6.1 Ecosystem Engineers: an organism that modifies, creates or destroys habitat and directly or indirectly modulates the availability of resources to other species, causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials.
7 Ethical Viewpoints
7.1 Biophilia: The connections that human beings subconsciously seek with the rest of life
7.2 Biocentric vs. Ecocentric
7.2.1 All organisms have intrinsic value and an inherent right to exist
7.3 Conservation Biology: understanding the factors, forces and processes that influence the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity.
7.3.1 Metapopulation (a network of subpopulations) is created because small pop. is most vulnerable to extirpation, and this is to see how species react across subpopulations.
7.4 Endangered Species Act (ESA): Forbids gov't and private citizens from taking action that destroys endangered species or their habitats.
7.4.1 "Shoot, shovel, shut up"
7.4.2 Places more value on the life of endangered organism than on the livelihood of a person.
7.4.3 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Protects endangered species by banning international transport of their parts.
7.4.4 Convention on Biological Diversity: Conserve biodiversity, use biodiversity in sustainable manner, and ensure fair distribution of biodiversity's benefits.
7.5 Umbrella vs. Flagship Species
8 Island Biogeography
8.1 Equilibrium Theory of Island Biogeography
8.1.1 Distance Effect: Farther away from continent, less amount of biodiversity.
8.1.2 Area Effect: Large islands have more species at equilibrium than small islands due to immigration rates and extinction rates.
8.1.3 Species-Area Curves: Number of species on an island is expected to double as island size increases tenfold.
8.2 Prioritize regions that are most important globally for biodiversity conservation (i.e. endemic species)
9 Neocolonialism: Use of economical, political, cultural, or other pressures to control/influence other countries.
9.1 Debt-for-Nature Swap: Help pay off developing country's debt if they promise to set aside reserves, fund environmental education, and better manage protected areas.
9.2 Conservation Concession: Nations sell concessions to foreign multinational corporations, allowing them to extract resources from nation's land.
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