Innate Immune System

One Health
Mind Map by One Health, updated more than 1 year ago
One Health
Created by One Health almost 6 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on Innate Immune System, created by One Health on 02/04/2015.

Resource summary

Innate Immune System
1 Innate/nonspecific immunity
1.1 Nonspecific defense that is always active against infection, but lacks ability to target specific invaders
1.1.1 Skin (integument)
1.1.1.1 Defensins
1.1.1.1.1 Antibacterial enzyme
1.1.1.2 Basic physical barrier against the outside world
1.1.2 Respiratory system
1.1.2.1 Lysozyme
1.1.2.1.1 Nonspecific bacterial enzyme secreted in saliva and tears
1.1.2.2 Cilia
1.1.2.2.1 Mucous membranes that trap particulates and push them to the oropharynx to be swallowed or expelled
1.2 Gastrointestinal tract
1.2.1 Acid eliminates most pathogens.
1.2.2 Gut bacteria
1.2.2.1 Many invaders cannot compete with present gut flora, and therefore die off.
1.3 Complement system
1.3.1 Classical pathway
1.3.1.1 Requires binding of antibody to pathogen
1.3.2 Alternative pathway
1.3.2.1 Doesnt require antibodies
1.3.3 Nonspecific defense proteins in blood. Punch holes in bacteria cell walls (osmotic instability). Cannot be modified to target specific organisms
1.4 Interferons
1.4.1 Proteins that prevent viral replication and dispersion
1.4.2 Decrease permeability of nearby cells making it harder for virus to infect.
1.4.3 Upregulate MHC class I and II
1.4.4 Responsible for flu-like symptoms
1.5 Cells of the innate immune system
1.5.1 Monocytes
1.5.1.1 Macrophages
1.5.1.1.1 Antigen presenting cell. When a bacterial invader enters a macrophage-resident tissue, macrophages: 1. Phagocytose invader through endocytosis. 2. Digests invader using enzymes. 3. Present peptides (antigen) of invader (using MHC) to adaptive immune system
1.5.1.1.2 Major Histocompatibility Complex
1.5.1.1.2.1 MHC Class I pathway
1.5.1.1.2.1.1 Endogenous pathway (displays proteins from within the cell). Present in all nucleated cells. Displays to cytotoxic (CD8) cells
1.5.1.1.2.2 MHC Class II pathway
1.5.1.1.2.2.1 Present on macrophages, dendritic cells, and some B-cells (adaptive). Displays exogenous antigens (originate outside the cell) to T-helper cells (CD4)
1.5.1.1.2.3 Displays antigens to adaptive immune system.
1.5.1.1.3 Pattern recognition receptors (PRR)
1.5.1.1.3.1 Toll-like receptors
1.5.1.1.3.1.1 Most common PRR. Single, membrane-spanning, non-catalytic receptors
1.5.1.1.3.2 Able to recognize category of invader (bacteria vs. virus vs. fungi, etc). Aids in production of appropriate CYTOKINES
1.5.1.1.3.3 Cytokines
1.5.1.1.3.3.1 Chemicals that stimulate inflammation and recruit additional immune cells
1.5.1.2 Blood-borne
1.5.2 Antigen Presenting cells
1.5.2.1 Dendritic Cells
1.5.2.1.1 Antigen presenting cells in the skin
1.5.2.2 B cells (adaptive immunity)
1.5.3 Natural killer cells
1.5.3.1 Nonspecific lymphocyte. Can detect down regulation of MHC (brought on by certain pathogen defenses) and induce apoptosis in virally infected cells. Can offer protection against growth of cancer as well
1.5.4 Granulocytes
1.5.4.1 Neutrophils
1.5.4.1.1 Leukocyte. Short lived (5 days). Phagocytic (particularly opsonized bacteria)
1.5.4.1.2 Chemotaxis
1.5.4.1.2.1 Method by which neutrophils can follow bacteria
1.5.4.1.3 Pus
1.5.4.1.3.1 Dead neutrophils form pus
1.5.4.2 Eosinophils
1.5.4.2.1 Primarily involved in allergic reactions and parasitic infections .
1.5.4.2.2 Histamine
1.5.4.2.2.1 Inflammatory mediator. Vasodilation & increased blood vessel leakiness allows other immune cells to disseminate
1.5.4.3 Basophils
1.5.4.3.1 Mast Cells
1.5.4.3.1.1 Smaller granules than basophils. Exist in tissue, mucosa, epithelium. Degranulation (exocytosis of granule contents) occurs when antigen binds to mast cell, causing histamine release, leading to inflam/allergic rxn
1.5.4.3.1.2 Basophils and mast cells also release HISTAMINE in response to allergens
1.5.4.3.2 Large purple granules. Least populous under normal conditions
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