Hitler's Foreign Policy and Appeasement

Ilana Hawdon
Mind Map by Ilana Hawdon, updated more than 1 year ago
Ilana Hawdon
Created by Ilana Hawdon about 6 years ago
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AQA History unit 1 GCSE

Resource summary

Hitler's Foreign Policy and Appeasement
  1. Hitler's aims
    1. Make Germany a great nation again
      1. Unite all German speakers
        1. Create Lebensraum
          1. Destroy communism
            1. Create a master race
            2. How could Hitler be successful in furthering his aims?
              1. Change the land settlement of the treaty
                1. Unite 7mill German speakers in Austria and 4mill in Czechoslovakia and Poland
                  1. Expand Eastwards
                    1. Build up the German army
                      1. He wanted to gain the friendship of Italy and Britain
                      2. How did he go about his early gains?
                        1. He began to rearm
                          1. Attended disarmament conference 1932
                            1. French refused to disarm
                              1. Hitler took Germany out of the League
                            2. USSR joined league in 1934, afraid of German expansion
                              1. Exploited Britain and France
                                1. 10 yr non-aggression pact with Poland-1934
                                2. How did Hitler break TofV
                                  1. Rearmament 1935
                                    1. Hitler introduced conscription
                                      1. Anglo-German naval agreement
                                        1. German navy no more than 35% of Britain's
                                        2. Britain agreed to German rearmament
                                          1. Weakened Stresa Front
                                            1. Agreement between Italy, Britain & France
                                          2. By 1938 army-800,000 navy-47 U-boats air force-2000+ aircraft
                                            1. By 1939 army was 1mill+
                                          3. Re-occupation of Rhineland 1936
                                            1. 7th March Hitler put troops in Rhineland
                                              1. This undermined TofV and Locarno pact of 1926
                                                1. He told his troops to retreat if faced with opposition
                                                  1. Britain and France didn't stop him they only condemned the act
                                                    1. USSR voted to impose sanctions
                                                      1. They were worried about Abyssinia
                                                        1. France didn't want to act without Britain
                                                          1. Britain thought Hitler was only going into his 'backyard' and was doing nothing wrong
                                                            1. They thought the Treaty was too harsh anyway
                                                  2. Signed 25 yr non-aggression pact with France
                                                    1. Promised he had no further territorial demands in Europe
                                                  3. Effects of remiliterisation
                                                    1. Britain &France could have stopped Hitler
                                                      1. Britain wanted to sort out Germany's genuine grievances so there would be no more complaints
                                                        1. Hitler gained popularity & confidence to go further
                                                          1. Signed Rome-Berlin Axis 1936
                                                            1. Chance to test army in Spanish civil war 1936-39
                                                              1. Hitler gained Italy as an ally
                                                                1. Britain and France weren't willing to oppose these two leaders
                                                                  1. Need for rearmament in Britain
                                                            2. Anschluss
                                                              1. 1934
                                                                1. Attempted to join with Austria
                                                                  1. Encouraged civil disobedience from Austrian Nazis
                                                                    1. Resulted in murder of Austrian chancellor Dolfuss
                                                                    2. Mussolini stopped Hitler by moving his army to the Austrian border
                                                                      1. Hitler was too weak to fight back, retreated and started to build up his army
                                                                    3. 1938
                                                                      1. Hitler was now allied with Mussolini
                                                                        1. Encouraged Austrian Nazis to overthrow the government
                                                                          1. Austrian chancellor asked for Hitler's help
                                                                            1. He didn't help
                                                                              1. He demanded that the Austrian Nazis become a part of the government
                                                                                1. He forced Schuschnigg to appoint Seyss-Inquart as Minister of the interior
                                                                                  1. Hitler and Seyss-Inquart encouraged Austrian Nazis to riot
                                                                                    1. Schuschnigg ordered a plebiscite to decide whether Austria remained independent or not
                                                                                      1. Hitler told Schuschnigg to cancel it and resign
                                                                                        1. Britain and France did nothing
                                                                                          1. Seyss-Inquart became chancellor
                                                                                            1. German troops entered the country on 12th March
                                                                                              1. In April, 99.75% of Austrians agreed to unite with Germany.
                                                                                                1. Hitler used this as evidence that he was following the 14 points
                                                                      2. Effects of Anschluss
                                                                        1. Victory for Germany
                                                                          1. Hitler gained land, army and money from coal and steel
                                                                            1. Hitler's popularity and confidence grew
                                                                              1. Germany surrounded the Sudetenland
                                                                              2. Consequences of Hitler's violations of TofV
                                                                                1. Britain and France were seen as weak
                                                                                  1. Aggressive powers ally with Hitler
                                                                                  2. Rome-Berlin Axis 1935
                                                                                    1. Hitler encouraged to take more risks and expand
                                                                                      1. Built forts around Rhineland
                                                                                    2. Smaller countries started to worry
                                                                                    3. Britain and appeasement
                                                                                      1. Policy adopted by Britain 1919-39
                                                                                        1. Closely tied to Neville Chamberlain 1937-39
                                                                                          1. He felt that the TofV was too harsh on Germany
                                                                                        2. Chamberlain knew there were risks but if Germany was satisfied, there would be no chance of war
                                                                                          1. Appeasement depended on:
                                                                                            1. Hitler's honesty and trustworthiness
                                                                                              1. How reasonable Hitler's demands were
                                                                                            2. Pros and cons of appeasement
                                                                                              1. Pros
                                                                                                1. War delayed
                                                                                                  1. Gave time to prepare for war
                                                                                                    1. Germany had 'genuine grievances'
                                                                                                      1. They feared Communism more than Nazism and wanted to create a 'buffer zone' between themselves and Russia
                                                                                                        1. They didn't have the support of the USA as the USA was isolated
                                                                                                        2. Cons
                                                                                                          1. Hitler wasn't trustworthy
                                                                                                            1. Made Britain look weak
                                                                                                              1. Hitler gained confidence and strength
                                                                                                            2. Sudetenland crisis 1939
                                                                                                              1. After the Anschluss, Hitler wanted to take over Czechoslovakia as there was 3mill German speakers (this was his excuse)
                                                                                                                1. It was one of the strongest states created by TofV
                                                                                                                  1. It had strong fortifications
                                                                                                                    1. It was industrially rich
                                                                                                                      1. He was encouraged by the policy of appeasement
                                                                                                                        1. He had the guaranteed support of Mussolini
                                                                                                                        2. How did Hitler take over Czechoslovakia?
                                                                                                                          1. Konrad Henlein (leader of Sudeten Germans) helped Hitler by ordering Nazis to attack Czechs and Jews
                                                                                                                            1. Hitler hoped that the Nazis would have to step in to take control and promised Henlein he could depend on Hitler
                                                                                                                              1. Britain and France did nothing
                                                                                                                                1. 15th September 1938 Chamberlain flew to Berchesgaden to find out what Hitler wanted
                                                                                                                                  1. He demanded the German speaking parts of the Sudetenland after a plebiscite
                                                                                                                                    1. Chamberlain forced Benes (the Czech President) to accept
                                                                                                                                      1. Benes realised he couldn't depend on BR & FR
                                                                                                                                        1. He thought he could depend on USSR
                                                                                                                                          1. 22nd September Chamberlain returned to Germany
                                                                                                                                            1. Hitler, amazed that his demands had been met, asked for more
                                                                                                                                              1. He wanted his requests met immediately with no plebiscite
                                                                                                                                                1. Chamberlain returned to London and prepared for war
                                                                                                                                                  1. He then received an invitation to a 4 power Munich agreement
                                                                                                                                                    1. The 4 powers were:
                                                                                                                                                      1. Britain & Chamberlain
                                                                                                                                                        1. France & Daladier
                                                                                                                                                          1. Italy & Mussolini
                                                                                                                                                            1. Germany & Hitler
                                                                                                                                                              1. Czechoslovakia and USSR weren't invited
                                                                                                                                                                1. 30th September 1938 Munich
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Agreed that:
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sudetenland would become German
                                                                                                                                                                      1. BR & FR would protect the rest of CZ
                                                                                                                                                                        1. The Czechs were forced to accept
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Hitler & Chamberlain met secretly to agree never to go to war with eachother
                                                                                                                                    2. Consequences of Czechoslovakian takeover
                                                                                                                                      1. Hitler was able to expand
                                                                                                                                        1. Czechoslovakia had been betrayed
                                                                                                                                          1. Peace maintained
                                                                                                                                            1. Hitler gained confidence
                                                                                                                                              1. Germany gained resources
                                                                                                                                                1. Appeasement was a failure
                                                                                                                                                  1. Hitler allied with Japan and Italy to make the great Fascist union (Pact of Steel 1939)
                                                                                                                                                    1. USSR felt betrayed
                                                                                                                                                    2. What happened to Czechoslovakia
                                                                                                                                                      1. Lost 70% of it's heavy industry
                                                                                                                                                        1. Poland got the province of Teschen in October 1938
                                                                                                                                                          1. Lost entire defence frontier
                                                                                                                                                            1. Lost huge deposits of coal, iron ore and lignite
                                                                                                                                                              1. Lost 3.5mill Sudeten Germans
                                                                                                                                                              2. Effects of the takeover of Czechoslovakia
                                                                                                                                                                1. Marked the end of appeasement
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hitler proved he couldn't be trusted
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Chamberlain felt betrayed
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Lithuania was forced to surrender Memel
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Hitler demanded the return of the port Danzig
                                                                                                                                                                          1. BR & FR signed a guarantee to protect Poland if invaded
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Mussolini conquered Albania
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Conscription introduced in Britain
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Signing of Pact of Steel
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hitler withdrew non aggression pact with Poland and Naval agreement with GB
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Role of USSR
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. USSR could help Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Too far away from BR & FR
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. BR & FR tried to make agreement over Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Poles were scare of Soviets as much as the Nazis
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Stalin aimed to make a pact with Hitler (Nazi-Soviet pact August 1939
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. The world was amazed as they were sworn enemies
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Went against anti-commintern pact 1937
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Why was the Nazi-Soviet pact signed?
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Britain failed to gain alliance so Stalin resorted to Hitler
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Stalin thought BR & FR were trying to encourage the allinace
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Germany and Russia agreed not to interfere with each other in the event of war
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Secret clauses also meant they would get half of Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Both countries had time to prepare for war
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. An attack on Poland was inevitable
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Why did Russia change her attitude to Germany 1938-39
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Britain and France were weak and Stalin knew they would be a poor ally
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Hitler was moving further East and Stalin needed to stop him
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Russia was militarily weak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Britain and France were too slow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Why did BR & FR change their attitude towards Germany 1938-39?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hitler broke Munich agreement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Change in public opinion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Support of the white dominions (Australia, NZ, Canada)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Rearmament
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Poland and the outbreak of war
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Hitler demanded 90% of Danzig
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Poland refused
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Hitler was amazed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. He expected BR & FR to give in again
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. BR told Hitler it would protect Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. 1st September Hitler invaded Poland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 3rd September BR declared war on Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Germany and USSR overran Poland in 4 weeks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Why did war break out in 1939?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Actions of Hitler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Appeasement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. TofV too harsh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Depression
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Failure of LofN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Nazi-Soviet pact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Change in public opinion
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