Antibiotic Targets and modes

vikki.hodge
Mind Map by vikki.hodge, updated more than 1 year ago
vikki.hodge
Created by vikki.hodge over 6 years ago
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Medical Microbiology Mind Map on Antibiotic Targets and modes, created by vikki.hodge on 09/18/2013.
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Antibiotic Targets and modes
1 Act on the Cell Wall
1.1 relatively inexpensive
1.2 non-toxic (can be administered in high doses)
1.3 Penicillin
1.3.1 contains bete-Lactam ring.
1.3.2 beta-lactam inhibits the cross link between peptidoglycan between NAM and NAG in the bacterial cell wall
1.3.2.1 the bete-lactam ring binds with the enzyme that produces these linkages
1.3.2.1.1 the enzyme that hydrolises these bonds continue to work making the cell wall weak, the osmotic pressure will continue to rise eventually causing the cell to burst and die
1.3.3 Blocks the division of the bacteria
1.4 usually on gram positive as there is a single cell wall
2 Target Ribosomes
2.1 targets protein synthesis
2.1.1 Streptomycin
2.1.1.1 cannot be administered orally but instead by regular intramuscular injections
2.1.1.2 binds to the 30s subunits of the bacterial ribosome, this misleads the DNA codon eventually causing inhibition of protein synthesis
2.1.1.2.1 by binding to the 30s subunit it interferes with the 50s subunit whcih associates with mRNA. as a result an unstable mRNA strand is produced meaning the incorect AA acids are coded for and therefore the worn proteing are produced causing cell death
2.1.1.3 can be used on both gran negative and positive making it a broad spectrum antibiotic
2.1.1.4 bacterial ribosomes are different than that of humans meaning that it has specific toxicity
3 Inhibit Nucleic Acid Synthesis
3.1 Qunilones
3.1.1 broad spectrum
3.1.2 prevent DNA from unwinding and duplicating
3.1.3 targets DNA gyrasa (topoisomerase) which causes the DNA to unwind during DNA replication.
3.1.3.1 used to treat certain infections (UTIs) caused by gram negative bacteria
3.1.4 enter cells via pores therefore often used to treat intracellular infections
4 Anti-metabolites
4.1 Sulfonamides
4.1.1 humans require folic acid but the get it through diet and we do not synthesis it therefor this is effective against organismis that rely on folic acid synthesis
4.1.1.1 selective toxicity
4.1.2 competitive inhibition of dihydropterate synthetase (DHPS)
4.1.2.1 DHPS catalyses tconversion of PABA to dihydropterate in folate synthesis pathway
4.1.2.1.1 inhibit the production of folic acid an important metabolite in DNA synthesis therefor cells are unable to divide
4.2 inhibits the use of a metabolite which is part of normal metabolism
4.3 can have a toxic effect on cells such as halt growth and cell division (sometimes used in cancer treatments)
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