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History of Animation

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Level 3 Media Studies Mind Map on History of Animation, created by Nour Farrag on 03/03/2015.
Nour Farrag
Mind Map by Nour Farrag, updated more than 1 year ago
Nour Farrag
Created by Nour Farrag over 7 years ago
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Resource summary

History of Animation
  1. Period: 19th Centaury – To Present Day.
    1. Even before there were films, people had elaborate contraptions which simulated animation. Such as the Magic lantern, Thaumatrope and the Phenakistoscope these were all early designs for animation some more successful then others however they all had the same goal. The Thaumatrope and the Phenakistoscope both uses the persistence of vision phenomenon to work well with them, allowing brief images to pass by a small slit which makes the persons mind to fill the gaps with images which are imprinted in the brain.
      1. Before 1887
      2. Emil Reynaud (1844 – 1918) A French man, opened his theatre Optique in Paris with an archetype of animation created his own invention. The Praxinoscope was a theatrical Zoetrope with mirrors placed on a column inside which reflected the sequential drawings which were on the inside of the drum, He was able to project around 80 frames without changing films and they could last up to ten to fifteen minutes. However the advent of film drove him out of business and in 1910 he threw his equipment into a river and died destitute in a sanatorium in 1918.
        1. 1844 - 1918
        2. In 1887 H.W. Goodwin invents nitrate celluloid film, which is a chemical combination of gun cotton and gum camphor.
          1. 1897
          2. In 1893 Thomas Edison was already a keen inventor and had already projected quite useful films onto the wall in his factory, But rather than producing a viewing system for the general public he made his own machine in which reels of celluloid were not unrolled but stretched over a set of wheels which passed a light in front of a viewing window. Only one viewer at a time because the kinetsocope did not have an intermittent movement.
            1. 1893
            2. Lois Lumiere invents the cinematograph in 1894 which is a combination of cameras, projectors and printers. It was the first machine to show movies successfully on a screen. The system used a claw movement and perforated film that was synced to an intermittent shutter movement. Also Thomas Edison opened his first Kinetoscope parlor in New York.
              1. 1894
              2. In 1899 the First ever successful recording of sound is achieved, which would lead to films now having sounds to play along with the films rather then having to play it on gramophone records.
                1. 1899
                2. Then in 1906 James Stuart Blackton makes the film “ Humorous Phases of funny face” which is often considered to be the first know example of animation as some of the drawn sequences are shot frame by frame. Blackton used a combination of blackboard, chalk drawings and cutouts to achieve animation. The films motif was based on the lighting or a quick sketch routine from Vaudeville where a drawing is done in front of an audience.
                  1. 1906
                3. Period: 19th Centaury – To Present Day.
                  1. Many consider Walt Disney's 1937 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs the first animated feature film, though at least seven films were released earlier. However, Disney's film was the first one completely made using hand-drawn animation.
                    1. 1937
                    2. Colour television was introduced to the US Market in 1951. In 1958, Hanna-Barbera released Huckleberry Hound, the first half-hour television program to feature only animation. Terrytoons released Tom Terrific the same year. In 1960, Hanna-Barbera released another monumental animated television show, The Flintstones, which was the first animated series on prime time television. Television significantly decreased public attention to the animated shorts being shown in theatres.
                      1. 1951 - 1960
                      2. Fully computer-animated feature film Toy Story and Animated television series to be broadcast in Dolby surround .
                        1. 1995
                        2. Period: 19th Centaury – To Present Day.
                          1. Canon is a company which started in 1937 in a laboratory in tokyo by Takeshi Mitarai, Goro Yoshida, Saburo Uchida and Takeo Maeda. During its early years the company did not have any facilities to produce its own optical glass, and its first camera incorporated Nikkor lenses from Nippon Kogaku K.K. which was later rebranded as Nikon
                            1. 1937
                              1. The Nikon corporation was established on the 25th of july 1917 when three leading optical manufactures merged, they fully integrated and were known as Nippon Kõgaku Tõkyo K.K. Over 60 years this company would became a manufacturer of optical lenses (including those for the first Canon cameras).
                                1. 1917
                          2. Period: 19th Centaury – To Present Day.
                            1. Feature shot with digital still cameras.
                              1. 2005
                              2. Blu-ray released
                                1. 2006
                                2. Feature digitally animated by one person which was then presented in 7.1 surround .
                                  1. 2007
                                  2. Stop motion character Coraline was animated using a rapid prototyping.
                                    1. 2009
                                    2. In 2010 toy story 3 which is an animated feature film earned more then $1,000,000,000 worldwide. It is currently 32nd in the world at 200 million dollars.
                                      1. 2010
                                      2. Stop motion was used to create the film ParaNorman to use 3D printing technology for models.
                                        1. 2012
                                        2. Tangled is currently number one on the most expensive animated move at 274 million dollars.
                                          1. 2010
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