Memory.

Khashayar Khani
Mind Map by Khashayar Khani, updated more than 1 year ago
Khashayar Khani
Created by Khashayar Khani almost 5 years ago
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A level Psychology AQA memory mind map.

Resource summary

Memory.
1 Multi Store Model (Atkinson & Shiffrin).
1.1 1). Sensory information gets attention.
1.2 2). It enters the STM where it will decay in up to 30 seconds unless rehearsed.
1.3 3). Once rehearsed, it enters the LTM where it will stay for a lifetime.
1.4 Sensory
1.4.1 Ears (acoustic).
1.4.2 Eyes (visual).
1.4.3 Meaning (semantic).
1.4.4 + Good understanding.
1.4.5 + Researchers are able to expand on the model.
1.4.6 - Doesn't explain why we don't remember things we rehearse, i.e school notes yet we remember things we don't rehearse, i.e a fun night out.
1.5 LTM.
1.5.1 Capacity: Limitless.
1.5.2 Duration: Up to a lifetime.
1.5.3 Encoding: Mainly semantically.
1.6 STM.
1.6.1 Capacity: 7 + or - 2.
1.6.2 Duration:18-30 seconds before it decays.
1.6.3 Encoding: Mainly acoustic.
2 Working Memory Model (Baddeley & Hitch).
2.1 1). Sensory information is processed in the central executive.
2.2 2). The information is filtered and put into a specific section.
2.3 3). Auditory info goes in the phonological loop. Visual info enters the visuo spatial sketchpad.
2.4 Phonological loop.
2.4.1 Words you hear are entered into the phonological store.
2.4.2 They then enter the articulatory process which allows maintenance rehearsal.
2.4.3 The phonological loop plays a big role in reading development.
2.5 Visuo-spatial sketchpad.
2.5.1 Visual cache which takes care of colour and form of the object/s.
2.5.2 Inner scribe which sorts out the arrangement of the object/s.
2.5.3 Episodic Buffer.
2.5.3.1 Linking with time and sequencing.
2.5.3.2 Referred to as ''backup''.
2.6 KF.
2.6.1 KF supports the WMM.
2.6.2 KF suffered from brain damage after a motorcycle accident which damaged his STM.
2.6.3 KF's impairment was mainly for verbal information, his memory for visual information was largely unaffected.
2.6.4 KF would forget anything you told him, but if you wrote it down, he was able to remember it.
2.6.5 This shows that there are separate STM components for visual and verbal information.
2.6.6 Evidence from brain-damaged patients may not be reliable because it concerns unique cases with patients who have had traumatic experiences.
2.7 - Very little is known about the central executive. It has an unclear role.
2.8 - The working memory model shows no link between memory and LTM.
3 Glanzer and Cunitz.
3.1 1). Glanzer and Cunitz presented participant's with a list of words.
3.2 2). Participants were only able to recall the first few (primacy) and the last few words (recency).
3.3 This is because they rehearsed the first few words they heard so it entered their LTM, they were able to retrieve that information back.
3.4 The last few words were in their short term memory, information can last up to 30 seconds there before decaying.
4 Dual Task (Baddeley and Hitch)
4.1 1). Participants had to repeat a list of numbers ( digit span test).
4.2 2). They also had to answer true or false questions (verbal reasoning).
4.3 Results showed that as numbers increased, participants only took a fraction of a second longer to answer true or false questions. Participants answered the true or false questions correctly.
4.4 The verbal reasoning task made use of the Central Executive and the digit span task made use of the Phonological Loop.
4.5 Harder to complete two tasks using one slave system.
4.6 Easier to complete two tasks using two different slave systems.
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