Rural Change

Emma.Pullen
Mind Map by Emma.Pullen, updated more than 1 year ago
Emma.Pullen
Created by Emma.Pullen about 5 years ago
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A Levels Geo Mind Map on Rural Change, created by Emma.Pullen on 03/14/2015.

Resource summary

Rural Change
1 Key Ideals
1.1 A number of social and economic issues are associated with rural change
1.2 Structural changes can lead to social and economic differences within and between rural areas
1.3 Lack of economic opportunities in rural areas can lead to depopulation and decline
1.4 Economic and social problems occur in areas of rural decline
1.5 Economic and social problems are associated with growth and development in rural areas
2 NEBRASKA
2.1 Background:
2.1.1 US state at the centre of the great plains
2.1.2 Roughly size of England and Wales combined
2.1.3 Flat land
2.1.3.1 Relief rises gradually over 400km from east to west. (500m in Missouri Valley to over 1,500m along the boarder of Wyoming.
2.1.4 Climate dominated by position in the continental interior
2.1.4.1 Winters are cold = min temperature in January falling to -11.7 degrees C
2.1.4.2 Summers are hot. Average max= July (in the east) reach 33 degrees C
2.1.4.3 Rainfall decreases towards the west where the rain-shadow effect on the Rockies is most pronounced. Western areas recieve barely 400mm a year
2.1.5 94% farmland
2.1.5.1 Growing season lasts 130-170 days a year
2.2 Population change
2.2.1 Grew between 1990 and 2000 by over 8%. This overall growth conceals massive rural depopulation at the country scale
2.2.2 53/90 states lost population between 1990 and 2000 (slow demographic collaspse in rural areas
2.2.3 Growth concentrated in 2 areas
2.2.3.1 The eastern Metropolitan countries (Omaha, Sious Falls and Lincoln)
2.2.3.2 The Interstate 80 corridor
2.3 Causes of Decline
2.3.1 Demographic and economic factors
2.3.1.1 Demographic
2.3.1.1.1 Birth
2.3.1.1.2 Death
2.3.1.1.3 Migration
2.3.1.2 Economic
2.3.1.2.1 Unemployment
2.3.1.2.1.1 Lack of employment opportunities
2.3.1.2.1.1.1 Agriculture declining due to highly mechanised large-scale agribuisness = less employment
2.3.1.2.1.1.1.1 not many other opportunitiesin rural areas
2.3.1.2.2 Lower average wage/income
2.3.1.2.2.1 Median family income in Nuckolls under $25,000 a year. In Omaha median is $55,000
2.3.1.2.3 Lack of services (schools ect..)
2.3.1.2.3.1 Were 10 High schools in Nuckollos now 3
2.3.1.2.3.2 Closure of cheese factory using local dairy industry due to being too remote
2.3.1.2.3.3 Superior lost 2 car dealerships in 20 years
2.3.1.2.3.4 Competition from superstores such as Wal-Mart= Small shops close, marketing is lost. Superior lost 40% of it's advertising revenue
2.3.2 Superior, Nuckolls County (South Nebraska).
2.3.2.1 Typical demographic profile of an area suffering depopulation
2.3.2.2 Small total population
2.3.2.3 Small size of it's largest town (Superior)
2.3.2.4 Continuous depopulation since 1940
2.3.2.4.1 Accelerating trend
2.3.2.5 Natural decrease and net migration loss
2.3.2.5.1 Natural decrease reflects the out-migration of young adults aged 20 to 35. Group most likely to have kids
2.3.2.5.1.1 AGEING POPULATION. Average age is 44
2.3.2.5.2 455 more people left between 1990 and 2000 than move in
2.3.2.5.3 Population Pyramid has pinched appearance in age groups 20-30
3 Spiral of rural decline in the great plains
3.1 Fewer local jobs
3.1.1 Out migrations to urban centres
3.1.1.1 Population decline
3.1.1.1.1 Decreased demand for goods and services: Market centres decline
3.1.1.1.1.1 More competition from larger centres
3.1.2 Fewer farms and farm workers
3.1.2.1 Larger farms
3.1.2.1.1 Changing technology
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