Era of The Great War

Sophie Dickson
Mind Map by Sophie Dickson, updated more than 1 year ago
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Higher History Mind Map on Era of The Great War, created by Sophie Dickson on 03/23/2015.
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Era of The Great War
1 Scots on the Western Front
1.1 Reaction to the outbreak of war
1.1.1 War was declared in August 1914, there was mass enthusiasm for it all over Europe
1.1.2 In Britain, 900,000 volunteered in the first three months, 20,000 signed up in Glasgow in August
1.1.3 Young men from Scotland were encouraged to join the army
1.1.4 Some were younger than the 18 years of age they claimed to be
1.1.5 Young Scots came forward for many reasons such as peer pressure, feelings of guilt and a desire for adventure
1.1.6 Many thought the war would be over by Christmas
1.2 Trench warfare
1.2.1 A network of trenches stretched for 400 miles from the Channel coast to the border with Switzerland. This was called the Western Front
1.2.2 Trenches were usually about seven feet deep and six feet wide
1.2.3 Duck-boards were placed at the bottom to protect soldiers from problems such as trench foot
1.2.4 The front-line trenches were also protected by barbed wire and machine-gun posts
1.2.5 Behind the front-line trench there were support and reserve trenches
1.3 The Battle of Loos and The Battle of the Somme
1.3.1 The Battle of Loos started in September 1915
1.3.2 It was the first time Lord Kitchener, Secretary of State for War, used armies of volunteers in a major attack - around 30,000 Scots took part in the Battle, It was also the first time the British Army used poison gas as a weapon
1.3.3 Of the 21,000 killed, over 7,000 were Scottish soldiers
1.3.4 The Battle of the Somme started on 1 July 1916 and on that day the British army suffered its largest number of casualties ever – 19,200 dead and around 60,000 wounded or missing
1.3.5 The Battle of the Somme has been described as the graveyard of the various local battalions raised across Scotland in the late summer of 1914
1.3.6 Overall 400,000 British soldiers lost their lives on the Somme but it cost the Germans almost as many
2 Technology of war
2.1 Machine gun
2.1.1 This weapon could fire up to 600 bullets per minute
2.1.2 Very heavy and manned by up to three men, it was used as a defensive weapon.
2.1.3 Trenches were essential in protecting soldiers from machine gun fire.
2.2 Artillery
2.2.1 Big, heavy guns which fired large shells designed to cause maximum damage to enemy fortifications like trench systems, dug-outs and barbed wire were used
2.2.2 The constant noise of explosions and fear of death by shell-fire caused some men to suffer a form of nervous breakdown known as 'shell shock'
2.3 Gas
2.3.1 The German army was the first to use chlorine gas in 1915 at Ypres - when breathed in it burned the lungs
2.3.2 It needed light winds, but light winds could change and blow the gas back towards where it came from
2.4 Tanks
2.4.1 Tanks were developed in order to break the deadlock and as a way to cross no-man’s land. It was believed that they would change the course of the war. They were first used at the Battle of the Somme. However, they often broke down, got stuck in the mud and ran out of fuel. They were used more effectively at the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917.
3 Domestic impact of war: politics
3.1 Women's Suffrage
3.1.1 Employment
3.1.1.1 Women earned less than men (by as much as 40 per cent)
3.1.1.2 Women often had to give up their job when they married, and certainly if they became pregnant
3.1.2 Education
3.1.2.1 By 1914 boys and girls were both required to stay in school until the age of 14
3.1.2.2 Girls studied domestic subjects that prepared them up to be good wives and mothers
3.1.2.3 It was very difficult for women to get into university, and it was seen as a pointless waste of money
3.1.3 Politics
3.1.3.1 Women could note vote in a General Elections.
3.1.3.2 Women could divorce their husbands and retain access to their children.
3.1.3.3 They could keep their own property and money.
3.1.4 Suffragettes
3.1.4.1 The Suffragettes were frustrated with the slow pace of progress made by the NUWSS and its forerunners and believed more militant tactics were necessary to force the Government into enfranchising women.
3.1.4.2 a breakaway group which split from the main women’s movement in 1903 and was led by Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Christabel and Sylvia
3.1.4.3 Some have argued that the Suffragettes gained valuable publicity for the cause and that the Government could not ignore. Others have argued that their actions proved that women were too irresponsible to vote and that they actually delayed progress.
3.1.5 Suffragists
3.1.5.1 The National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) was formed in 1897. This group, led by Milicent Fawcett, campaigned for women’s voting rights through largely peaceful methods.
3.1.5.2 Through leaflets, letters, speeches and marches, the Suffragists obtained over 100,000 members. The peaceful methods convinced many that women were capable of voting and deserved the right to vote
3.1.5.3 some have argued that they achieved little in 40 years of campaigning and that there was a complete lack of progress by 1914
3.2 DORA
3.2.1 Examples of DORA laws
3.2.1.1 No-one was allowed to:
3.2.1.1.1 talk about naval or military matters in public places
3.2.1.1.2 spread rumours about military matters
3.2.1.1.3 buy binoculars
3.2.1.1.4 trespass on railway lines or bridges
3.2.1.1.5 melt down gold or silver
3.2.1.1.6 light bonfires or fireworks
3.2.1.1.7 give bread to horses or chickens
3.2.1.1.8 use invisible ink when writing abroad
3.3 Rent Strikes
4 Domestic impact of war: society and culture
4.1 Conscription and Conscientious Objectors
4.1.1 In 1914, Britain had the only army that was entirely made up of volunteers. Every other country used conscription to swell its army's size.
4.1.2 supporters of conscription argued that young men had a duty above all else to defend their country
4.1.3 Those against conscription argued that it had not been used in Britain before and meant another increase in the power of the state at the cost of individual liberty
4.1.4 Conscientious objectors were taken to a military tribunal. In 1916 approximately 14,000 appeared before tribunals. These tribunals were like military courts and they listened to objectors’ reasons for their refusal to accept conscription. Their arguments were usually rejected
4.2 Rationing
4.3 Women's Work
4.3.1 Women took over Men's work during the war.
4.3.1.1 This proved they were responsible and contributed to them getting the vote
5 Domestic impact of war: industry and economy
5.1 Prior to the war, Scotland’s traditional industries of shipbuilding, mining and metalwork were struggling. However, the war provided a temporary boost to industry and farming. This is because World War One was a total war and the whole country was needed in order to make sure that Britain was victorious.
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