The 2nd Reich

James Lenihan
Mind Map by James Lenihan, updated more than 1 year ago
James Lenihan
Created by James Lenihan almost 5 years ago
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2nd Reich Mind Map

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The 2nd Reich
1 Von Bülow
1.1 Flottenpolitk
1.1.1 Building up of the Navy to rival UK
1.1.2 Justified to protect Empire
1.1.3 Risk Theory - no one would risk attackign as the Naxy is so large
1.1.4 1900 Navy Law - build 38 battleships in 20 years
1.1.5 1906 Navy Law - build Dreadnoughts + widen Kiel Canal
1.2 Weltpolitik
1.2.1 Expansion of the Empire through colonies and economic influence
1.2.2 wanted 'a place in the sun'
1.2.3 Limited influence - a few African and pacific colonies
1.3 Herero Crisis
1.3.1 Deliberate killing 65,000 of native South West Africans
1.3.2 Caused political crisis - murderous and unrully army, caused political conflict
1.4 Reforms
1.4.1 1899 - Old Age and Invalidity Law
1.4.2 1902 - Tariff Law - restored high duty on foreign goods
1.4.3 1903 - Sickness Insurance Law extended
1.4.4 Children's working hours reduced
1.5 1907 - Hottentot Election
1.5.1 May 1906 - Centre party + SPD voted against new budget for a new colony railway
1.5.2 To get his own way the Kaiser dissolved Reichstag and called new elections
1.6 1908 - Daily Telegraph Affair
1.6.1 1. Kaiser gave an interview to British newspaper saying he wnated closer ties with UK
1.6.2 2.Reichstag objected to foreign policy ideas without consultation
1.6.3 3. Kaiser blamed Bülow for not censoring the interview
1.6.4 4.Kaiser guranteed it wouldn't happen again
1.6.5 5. Contrubuted to Bülow's downfall
2 Unification
2.1 formed 1871
2.2 Prussia dominant state
2.3 Formed by:
2.3.1 Zollverin Trade Union
2.3.2 Wars
2.3.2.1 1848 - Shleswig-Holstein
2.3.2.2 1866 - Austrian-Prussian
2.3.2.3 1870 - Franco-Prussian
2.4 Under Willhelm I
3 Constitution
3.1 25 states, all kept own Government
3.2 Created by Bismarck- preserve power of the elite
3.3 Kaiser
3.3.1 Controlled Foreign & diplomatic affairs
3.3.2 Controlled the Army
3.3.3 Appointed + dismissed Chancellor
3.3.4 Could dissolve Reichstag
3.3.5 Personality Important
3.4 Bundesrat
3.4.1 Upper House of parliment
3.4.2 58 seats - 17 Prussian
3.4.3 Made Laws
3.4.4 3 class franchise electorate
3.4.5 Change Constitution
3.5 Reichstag
3.5.1 Lower House of parliment
3.5.2 Mainly dealt with Finance
3.5.3 All men over 25 could vote
3.5.4 Chancellor, military + Kaiser not responsible to Reichstag
3.6 Army
3.6.1 Only Responsible to Kaiser
3.6.2 Acted in interest of Kaiser, not the state
3.6.3 Right to declare Martial Law
3.6.4 Prussian elite officers
3.7 Chancellor
3.7.1 Responsible to kaiser alone
3.7.2 Appoint + dismiss Secretaries
3.7.3 Could Ignore Reichstag
3.7.4 Difficult to co-op with Willhelm II
4 Political Parties
4.1 Conservatives
4.1.1 Conservatives
4.1.1.1 Junkers + Prussians
4.1.1.2 Supported Kaiser, nationalistic
4.1.2 Free Conservatives
4.1.2.1 Industrialists, wealthy professionals
4.1.2.2 Supported Bismarck, protectionism
4.2 Liberals
4.2.1 National Liberals
4.2.1.1 Industrialists, middles classes
4.2.1.2 Supported Kulterkampf, nationalistic
4.2.2 Liberal Progressives
4.2.2.1 Middle classes
4.2.2.2 Development of parliment, against Bismarck
4.2.3 Centre Party
4.2.3.1 Catholics, working classes, lower middle classes
4.2.3.2 Against Kulterkampf, feared socialism
4.2.4 Social Democrats
4.2.4.1 Working class, socialists
4.2.4.2 Marxists + Reformists
5 Bethmann-Höllweg
5.1 1913 - Zabern Affair
5.1.1 1. German Officer insulted locals in Alsace
5.1.2 2. Officer was jeered at in streets
5.1.3 3.locals were imprisoned and a siege began
5.1.4 4.Kaiser saw it as a military matter - sent in reinforcments, prevented Chancellor's involvment
5.1.5 5.Reichstag vote of no confidence ignored by Chancellor
6 Willhelm II
6.1 Preceded by Willhelm I, then Frederick
6.2 Came to throne aged 29
6.3 Unhappy childhood
6.4 Damaged left arm and ear
6.5 Believed in Divine Right
6.6 Poor decision maker
6.7 Did not believe in democracy
7 Socialist Movement
7.1 Banned under Bismarck, 1878-90, did not dampen enthusiasm
7.2 1914 - 2.5 million in unions, 400,000 went on strike
7.3 1910 - SPD had 720,000 members, 75% working class vote
7.4 1912 - SPD was largest party in Reichstag
7.5 1891 - Bebel
7.5.1 Work legally to achieve worker ownership of production
7.5.2 rejected co-op with 'bourgeois'
7.5.3 Believed revolution was inevitable
7.6 1900 - Bernstein
7.6.1 No crisis of capitalism
7.6.2 Look for reform
7.6.3 SPD should co-op when appropriate
7.7 Luxemburg + Liebknecht
7.7.1 Revolution should be considered
7.7.2 Use general strikes
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