Origins of The 1st Crusade

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Different factors grouped into different groups

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Origins of The 1st Crusade
1 Changing Circumstances in Middle East
1.1 Growing Islamic Strength
1.1.1 Seljuks were expanding into Anatolia, and solidifying their control gradually Baghdad had Nominal Control over seljuks Sunni Reveal = Greater Islamic Thought
1.2 Power Vacuum in Muslim Middle East
1.2.1 Within 2 years leaders of Abbasids, Seljuks and Fatimids died, causing chaos and civil war !092 Malik Shah Seljuk sultan died !094 Sunni Abbasid Caliph al Muqtadi died Shi'a Fatimid Caliph al Mustansir died Caliph's sons all fought for power
1.2.2 Decline of centralised power caused need for new alliances Alexius had an 'understanding' with Malik Shah Local warlords grew in power
2 Urban's Problems
2.1 Pilgrims already went to jerusalem
2.1.1 Under Pressure to help Pilgrims to Jerusalem Since 638 Jerusalem had been under Muslim Control Seljuks laid heavy tolls on Pilgrims Robbers on Route, eg German pilgriamage 1065 Seljuks in Anatolia meant that overland route was threatened by war
2.2 War was a problem for catholic church
2.2.1 6th Commandment 'thou shall not kill'
2.2.2 JUST WAR= in certain conditions war could be condoned eg self defence
2.2.3 HOLY WAR= a just war that is fought according to God
2.2.4 Not against war because medieval culture was built upon it Warrior culture, eg 'Chansons de Geste' songs about great warriors Fighting was common and nessacary, ie Reconquista and Norman Conquest
2.2.5 C.C had tried to stop war and violence and hadn't been able to, started to use it themselves PEACE OF GOD= fighting only mon-thurs TRUCE OF GOD= Fighting to protect church/ Poor Created the need for Penitence Alexander II gave Wm Conquer papal blessing in 1066
2.3 Urban wanted to take Catholicism in a new direction
2.3.1 By mid 11th century increased religion in society Saint Days Relics
2.3.2 Gregorian Reformation Gregory VII 1073- wanted to purify church, ending priestly marriage, creating new monastic orders Urban Intended on carrying this on
2.3.3 Investiture Crisis meant that Urban had little power in Germany
3 Council of Clermont
3.1 November 1095
3.2 called to deal with King Philip of France marriage, led to crusading preach to thousands
3.3 Canon 9 'whoever for devotion alone, not to gain honour or money goes to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God can substitute this journey for all penance'
3.3.1 This message was simplified and altered by peter the hermit
4 Emperor Alexius asked Pope Urban for help
4.1 What threats did Alexius and the Byzantine empire face
4.1.1 Lost control of Antioch 1085
4.1.2 1094 attempted Coup by his own brother
4.1.3 Kilij Arslan seized Nicaea in 1095
4.1.4 Severe Economic strain over taxation
4.2 Why did he ask a catholic pope for help
4.2.1 1073 Emperor Micheal had asked Gregory VII for Soliders
4.2.2 1091 Urban had given Alexius Troops to fight at The Battle of Lebounion
4.2.3 1090, Urban and Alexius may have planned to take troops to Jerusalem all though this never happened
4.2.4 Council of Piacenza March 1095, Alexius sent a letter to Urban asking for help against the Seljuks, Alexius MAY have suggested Jerusalem as a goal, PERHAPS exaggerating the threat of seljuks against Christians
5 Why did Participants go on 1st Crusade
5.1 Spiritual Reasons
5.1.1 Grant them penitential indulgence
5.1.2 All Christians were sinners but could still go to heaven by expunging sins from their souls Ways out of sin ABSOLUTION-from a priest INDULGENCE-forgiveness in return for repenting PENITENTIAL ACT to apologise for sin
5.1.3 Pilgrims came from all elements of society, Kings and beggars
5.1.4 people went for Christian 'Love', Eschatology, Celestial Omens or Religous War
5.2 Pilgrimage to the Holy Land was the 'best' penitential act, Land of Jesus and Church of the Holy Sepulchre
5.3 Other reasons for going
5.3.1 Glory, 'Iuvenes', fights enhanced their prestige in feudal war society
5.3.2 Plunder, knights ransomed enemies, commoners could loot
5.3.3 Conquest, Norman barons such as Baldwin of Boulogne wanted land
5.3.4 Feudal, Lords took their servants with them, they had to go
5.3.5 Kinship, families and friends went
5.3.6 Psychopathy, people who liked to kill
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