Edward IV's First Reign 1461 - 1469

stephanie hanson
Mind Map by stephanie hanson, updated more than 1 year ago
stephanie hanson
Created by stephanie hanson almost 5 years ago
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Mindmap of Edward IV's first reign separated into main sections with summary comments
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Edward IV's First Reign 1461 - 1469
1 The nobility
1.1 Employmeent, patronage and reward for nobles of both factions
1.1.1 Used the titles, offices and estates from 13 peers and 100 well-off gentry that had been attainted
1.1.2 created and bestowed 22 noble titles to bolster a depleted peerage and reward supporters.
1.1.2.1 This wasn't effective as a title didn't necessarily bring land and therefore wasn't viewed as a sufficient reward.
1.1.3 Principle beneficiaries
1.1.3.1 Edward's brothers
1.1.3.1.1 George > Duke of Clarence
1.1.3.1.1.1 endowed with lands to the value of £3660 and offices with a combined salary of £650
1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Despite this Clarence became alientated.
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 resented Woodville marriage and influence at court
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Turned to Warwick for support
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.2 irritated by the Woodvilles cornering the marriage market
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.2.1
1.1.3.1.2 Richard > Duke of Gloucester
1.1.3.2 The Nevilles
1.1.3.2.1 William, Lord Fauconberg > Earl of Kent
1.1.3.2.2 John, Lord Montagu > Earldom of Northumberland
1.1.3.2.3 George > Archbishop of York
1.1.3.2.4 Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick > UNPARELLELED POWER IN THE NORTH, VIRTUALLY RULING AS EDWARD'S VICEROY
1.1.3.2.4.1 Captainship of Calais
1.1.3.2.4.2 Constableship of Dover Castle
1.1.3.2.4.3 Wardenship of Cinque Ports
1.1.3.2.4.4 Admiralship of England and Ireland
1.1.3.2.4.5 Wardenship of the eastern and western Marches on the Scottish border
1.1.3.3 The Woodvilles
1.1.3.3.1 Richard Woodville, Elizabeth Woodville's father > Earl Rivers
1.1.3.3.2 Antony, Elizabeth Woodville's brother > Lord Scales, considerable influence at court
1.1.3.4 Favoured individuals
1.1.3.4.1 Sir William Herbert > Earl of Pembroke, EFFECTIVELY EDWARD'S VICEROY IN WALES
1.1.3.4.2 William, Lord Hastings > Chamberlain of the Royal Household
1.1.3.4.3 Favoured inner circle was very similar to H6's court, thus resentment occurred at his deposition from the throne was inevitable, showing his failings at reconciling all the nobility.
1.2 Pardon and reconciliation for Lancastrians
1.2.1 tried to broaden government so as to include former Lancastrians
1.2.2 E4 was liberal with pardons,
1.2.2.1
1.2.2.1.1 Executed in 1646 after rebelling against E4 at the battle of Hexham (15th May 1464)
1.2.2.1.1.1 This shows E4 wasn't successful and pardoned the wrong people, HOWEVER he didn't have any other real choice as he couldn't get rid of all Lancastrians as he didn't have enough support
1.2.2.2 Ralph Percy, the Lancastrian steward of Dunstanburgh Castle was allowed to keep his position
1.2.2.2.1 HOWEVER he then rebelled, opening the castle gates to MoA in 1462 and 1463.
1.2.2.2.1.1
1.2.2.3 extended a full pardon to the Beauforts.
1.2.2.3.1 Henry Beaufort (Somerset) > lands and honours restored in 1463
2 The Earl of Warwick
2.1 Recieved his title from his father-in-law, and became an extremely wealthy noble.
2.1.1 Supported Richard of York and E4's claim to the throne
2.1.1.1 Took part in the battle of St Albans (1455) and the Loveday procession (1458)
2.1.2 Became E4's main advisor
2.1.2.1 Became annoyed when E4 married Elizabeth Woodville and later formed an alliance with Burgundy without telling him
2.1.2.1.1 This was because WWK had been trying to broker a marriage alliance and therefore treaty with France and E4 marrying without telling WWK embarrassed him
2.2 Known as the Kingmaker at the time, even in foreign countries Warwick was seen as the power behind the throne
2.2.1 Historians nowdays agreed that E4 and Warwick were more in partnership than alledged.
3 Warwick's rebellion and the restoration of Henry VI
3.1 Unlike WotR was between two halves of the same side
3.1.1 Began in April 1469 when two seperate WWK inspired rebellions broke out
3.1.1.1 WWK hoped this would keep E4 busy in North
3.1.1.1.1 WWK and Clarence escaped to Calais where they plotted an uprising
3.1.1.1.1.1 To cement the alliance Clarence was married to WWK's daughter, a match forbidden by E4
3.1.1.1.1.2 Issued a similar manifesto as the one issued to H6 blaming the king's 'evil councillors' NOT THE KING
3.1.1.1.1.2.1 Returned to England in July 1469
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Edward sent Earls of Pembroke and Devon to fight
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 26th July 1469 - WWK and Clarence defeated Pembroke at Edgecote
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 On hearing the news E4's badly paid army fled and E4 escaped but was captured by WWK
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 WWK's attempt to govern the kingdom failed and he was forced to release E4 due to economic crisises
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 WWK tried to encourage a rebellion in March 1470 to get rid of E4 = Losecote Field Battle
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 12th March 1470 - Losecote Field battle under Sir Robert Welles in Lincolnshire, E4 beat them
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 WWK & Clarence fled to France, Louis XI managed to persuade them to reconcile with MoA
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Moa & H6's son was married to WWK's daughter Ann
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 Septermber 1470 WWK returned to England
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 E4 was distracted at the time and with the betrayal of WWK's brother Montagu he had no choice but to flee with Clarence to Burgundy
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 H6 was released and briefly put back on the throne
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 WWK & MoA helped L11 when he attacked Burgundy as they'd agreed
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 This lost WWK the support of parliament who hadn't agreed to the war
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2 Duke of Burgundy then gave E4 50,000 crowns to return to England
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 E4 returned from Burgundy March 1470 and set about recruiting an army
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1 Clarence joined him as he realised he had no hope of the throne with WWK
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 14th April 1471 - WWK was the killed at the Battle of Barnet, E4 won the battle
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 4th May 1471 - E4 won the Battle of Tewkesbury
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 MoA & H6's son, Prince Edward was killed
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.2 Duke of Somerset Killed
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.3 MoA fled but was then captured
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.4 Weeks after the Battle H6 was died - presumably murdered to end the wars
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.5 Jasper Tudor and Henry, Earl of Richmond (future King H7) fled abroad meaning E4 didn't ahve control of the last lancastrian claimant
3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 L11 wanted the english to support him when he attacked Burgundy, E4 wouldn't agree to this but H6 might so putting him back in power was the answer
4 Consolidation of Yorkist power
4.1 Lancastrian enemies concentrated their power in Northumberland and were sustained by Scottish and French help.
4.2 There were invasion scares on the south coast and disturbances occurred in several parts of the kingdom
4.2.1 E4 allowed Warwick to deal with Lancastrian based Scottish invasions
4.2.1.1 This allowed him to focus his attentions on consolidating support in London and governmental control.
4.3 Early in 1464 H6 and MoA returned to rally their support in the North
4.3.1 Sir Ralph Percy marched with H6 and MoA with a largely French-financed army of Scottish and French mecenaries
4.3.1.1 E4 responded by sending an army north under the command of Lord Montagu (Warwick's younger brother)
4.3.1.1.1 Hedgley Moor 25th April 1464, the Lancastrians were soundly beated and Percy killed, Somerset escaped
4.3.1.1.1.1 At Hexham -15th May 1464, Montagu captured and executed Somerset.
4.3.1.1.1.1.1 MoA and her son Prince E fled to France
4.3.1.1.1.1.2 H6 went on the run
4.3.1.1.1.1.2.1 H6 was captured in Lancashire in 1465 and imprisoned in the tower
4.3.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 Although able to put down rebellions E4 was forced to raise taxes and being unable to bring peace turned some people against him.
4.4 Foreign Policy
4.4.1 E4 had to legitimise his rule in the eyes of foreign powers to stop them supporting H6
4.4.1.1 In 1463 E4 gained a truce from the French that promised the wouldn't support H6
4.4.1.1.1 Success demonstrated in 1465 when Henry was found and arrested leaving his heir in France.
4.4.1.2 In 1464 a 15 year truce was agreed with the Scots, bringing peace to the border regions.
4.4.1.3 1468 Married his sister to the Duke of Burgundy to open up trade opportunities.
4.5 Close noble supporters rewarded
4.5.1 Warwick made Captain of Calais
4.5.2 Lord Montagu taking charge of the north region
5 The restoration of order
5.1 re-established the King's role in the judicial system.
5.1.1 Went on a major judicial progress in 1464 to witness trials, ensuring proper justice
5.1.1.1 Edward was willing to intervene in major breeches of peace e.g between Nobles as he knew this could escalate to feuding.
5.1.1.1.1 Set up special commissions headed by multiple magnates who would try and mediate to solve the dispute.
5.1.1.1.1.1 This was successful as it gave prestige to the magnates cheaply and also increased the chances of a resolution
5.2 Increased the powers of JP's
5.2.1 Moved the right to try criminals away from corrupt Sheriffs to the JP's
5.2.1.1 As JP's came from the lower gentry the power of Nobles over law and order was reduced making the system fairer.
5.3 E4 did not want to take all power from the Magnates
5.3.1 He used them to control violence and disorder
5.3.1.1 Because they were useful to him for keeping law and order E4 allowed the Nobles to exploit the system as long as he was not threatened by it.
5.4 1468 law that banned retaining unless legal agents and household servants
5.4.1 Never enforced
5.5 E4 also punished Nobles who stepped out of line to try and stop the idea of rebellion
6 Financial Policy
6.1 When E4 became king finance was dealt with by the Exchequer, which was inefficent
6.1.1 Exchequer was not removed but its responsibilities were moved.
6.1.1.1 Retaining
6.2 E4 switched to the more localised system of Chamber
6.2.1 Having been raised as a magnate E4 had plenty of experience in this.
6.2.2 The chamber became the major financial management.
6.2.2.1 Income increased as a result of the flexible system
6.2.2.1.1 Allowing E4 to maximise revenue from existing sources. This made him more popular.
6.2.2.2 Both R3 and H7 used this system in their later reigns showing it must have been successful.
6.2.3 E4 still struggled to make money during his 1st reign. This was partially due to the constant warring.
6.2.3.1 Abused legal rights to gain money
6.2.3.1.1 In 1646 he called for a gratuitous subsidy (the Pope's tax) which he kept.
6.2.3.1.1.1 This shows E4 was partially unsuccessful as he had to steal the Pope's money.
6.2.3.1.1.1.1 This could be due to the fact E4 over-generously rewarded Nobles giving them land he needed to raise money on.
6.3 E4 was given 4 times as much money in loans from London Merchants during his first reign than H6
6.3.1 Suggesting E4 was successful in increasing confidence in the crown's finances
6.4 E4 passed 113 acts of Attainder after his first parliament.
6.4.1 This should have gained him large amount of land from previously prominent Lancastrians.
6.4.1.1 HOWEVER
6.4.1.1.1 E4 reversed 30 acts in order to try reconciliation
6.4.1.1.2 E4 gave away large amounts of the land he gained thus decreasing his available income.
6.5 E4 also took the advantage of Wardships
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