SUFFIXES:we often use
a noun plus a suffix to
make an adjective. we
often use -ful to form
adjectives that mean
"with "or "full of" and less
to form adjectives that
1.1.1 The suffix -ful has been derived from the English word "full" and the literal meaning is
"full of". Some meanings are can be a little more abstract and it may be harder to
understand the meaning the first time you meet these words.
18.104.22.168 for example:power→ powerful
1.2.1 The suffix -less has been derived from the English word "less" and the literal meaning
is "without" or "lacking". Some meanings are more abstract. For example the suffix -less
can mean "unable to act or be acted on in a specified way"
22.214.171.124 for example:law→ lawless
2 MODALS OF DEDUCTION: We use modal verbs
to say how sure we are about something.
2.1 We use must when we feel sure that something is true because there’s
very strong evidence. EXAMPLE:He must live near here because he comes to work
on foot. We don’t know where he lives but we’re sure it’s not far away.
3 might, may, could
3.1 We use might, may or could to say that
we think something is possible but we’re
3.1.1 EXAMPLE:Don’t put it up there. It could fall off and hit
someone. Might, may and could are also followed by an
infinitive without ‘to’.
4.1 We use can’t when we feel sure something is not true.
4.1.1 EXAMPLE: It can’t be a burglar. All the doors and windows
are locked. He doesn’t know it’s not a burglar but he feels
sure it’s not.
5 In the same way that we use
modal verbs to say how certain
we are about things in the
present we can also use them to
speculate about the past.
5.1 (‘have done’, ‘have been’
have stolen’ etc.) is
called the perfect
5.1.1 must + perfect infinitive We use
must + perfect infinitive when we feel
sure about something in the past.
EXAMPLE:You must have been delighted
when you heard you’d won the lottery.
126.96.36.199 might/may/could + perfect
infinitive: We use might, may or
could with the perfect infinitive
to say that we think something
was possible but we aren’t
188.8.131.52 can’t + perfect
infinitive We use can’t
+ perfect infinitive:
when we feel sure
something didn’t happen
in the past.