Philosophy AS: Philosophy of Religion - Attributes of God.


Mind Map on Philosophy AS: Philosophy of Religion - Attributes of God., created by slatter.e07 on 04/16/2015.
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Philosophy AS: Philosophy of Religion - Attributes of God.
  1. 1. God's attributes:
    1. Eternal
      1. Outside of time
      2. Omnipotant
        1. All powerful
          1. If God is all powerful, can he do the logically impossible?
            1. a) God can do anything
              1. 1a. Religious philosophers like St Thomas Aquinas grappled with the concept of omnipotence, trying to articulate it in a coherent way.
                1. When Aquinas asks, ‘Is god omnipotent?’ he finds an immediate difficulty as all things can be moved or acted upon, however God is changeless (Immutable) And so there is one thing God cannot do: namely change. So he wrote a list of things he cannot do.
                  1. 1. Alter past events... 2. Change the laws of mathematics: (2 + 2 = 6) cannot be done... 3. Or do something self-contradictory: (Make something exist and not, or make something totally black and totally white at the same time.)
                    1. These examples, amongst others, have led theologians to amend a) to the more qualified claim that…
                      1. b) God can do anything logically possible.
                        1. 1b. Even this isn’t the right formulation, for some believers agree God cannot do some things, even though they are logically possible. For example, Aquinas asks whether God can create evil - his reply is no; God cannot sin.
                          1. God is not able to sin. Nor can he act in anyway that goes against his fundamental nature or which contradicts other elements of his perfection (Such as omniscience or immutability).
                            1. So, as part of an even more nuanced account of omnipotence, religious philosophers have to further modify their understanding of God’s omnipotence:
                              1. c). God can do anything which is logically possible and which does not limit his power.
                                1. Aquinas: no. What is impossible is a contradiction in terms
                                  1. The words that you use to describe the impossible literally contradict each other. So any description of a logically impossible state of affairs or power is not meaningful So what is logically impossible is not anything at all. This is no limitation on God’s power – there is still nothing that God can’t do.
        2. Omniscient
          1. All knowing
          2. Omnibeneveloent
            1. All good
            2. Transendent
              1. God is beyond our world
                1. The writers of the bible stated that god is both: he holds a peronal relationship and can exist beyond, and outside of, a limit of boundary.
              2. Immanent
                1. God's in the world, and present in all time and places connected within the universe
                  1. Spinoza
                2. Personal
                  1. Relationship with god
                  2. Perfectly intellectual
                    1. No limits on his intelligence
                    2. Maximally great
                      1. "God is greater then which cannot be conceived"
                      2. Everlasting
                        1. He is timeless, he is ATEMPORAL
                          1. What is god's relation to time?
                        2. 2. Paradox's of God's attributes
                          1. Omnipotent
                            1. The paradox of the stone
                              1. 'Can God make a stone so heavy he cannot lift it?'
                                1. Mavrodes
                                2. Savage
                              2. Omnibenevolence, omniscience, omnipotence
                                1. The problem of evil
                                  1. The evidential problem of evil
                                    1. The logical problem of evil
                                  2. Omnibenevolent and omnipotent
                                    1. To commit evil is to fail to be supremely good.
                                      1. If God is supremely good, then God cannot commit evil.
                                        1. Therefore, if God is supremely good, there is something that God cannot do.
                                          1. Therefore, God cannot be both supremely good and omnipotent.
                                            1. Three solutions:
                                              1. 1. God can commit evil (omnipotence), but always chooses not to (goodness).
                                                1. 2. There is no distinct power of ‘committing evil’ because ‘evil’ is not a type of act
                                                  1. 3. Aquinas: there is no distinct power of ‘committing evil’ because ‘evil’ is simply the absence of good
                                                    1. Being ‘able’ to fail is not a power, but a lack of power to succeed
                                                      1. God does not lack the power to do good, so God cannot commit evil.
                                        2. God's supreme goodness
                                          1. The Euthyphro dilemma
                                          2. Omniscnience
                                            1. The compataibility of god's foreknowledge and human free will
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