Psychology B541

Mind Map by Grape, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Grape almost 5 years ago


Mind Map on Psychology B541, created by Grape on 04/17/2015.

Resource summary

Psychology B541
1 Memory
1.1 Key Concepts
1.1.1 Information Processing: input, encoding, storage, retrieval, outout Input: Information entering the body through senses Encoding: Putting data into a format Storage: Storing information Retrieval: Retrieving the information Output: Saying something or writing it down Accessibility: problems occur when we can't get information into the memory, cant retrieve it Availability: information is no longer in the memory
1.2 Core Theory
1.2.1 Multi-Store Model STM: limited capacity & duration - info will decay or be displaced LTM: unlimited capacity & duration - 25% of into that reaches STM goes to LTM Sensory Store: info held until attention is paid Decay: info fades over time Displacement: info replaced with new info Memory retrieval: repeating info 1. Too rigid and ignores individual differences 2. Over simplifies STM & LTM 3. Over emphasises role of rehearsal - not all info in LTM is rehearsed
1.3 Core Study
1.3.1 Terry 2005 Lab experiment Procedure: commercials shown to 15 people Repeated measures design Whether ptp recalled commercials immediately or after a delay Results: serial position effect - good recall of first few and last few. Middle ones were displaced 1. Lab exp lacks ecological validity as it was an artificial setting 2. Lacks construct validity - narrow measure 3. Demand characteristics - there were clear cues of what the researcher was trying to investigate
1.3.2 Alternative Theory Levels of processing Shallow processing: noticing only the colour - not processing deeper information. Less likely to recall Deep processing: understanding - processing info for meaning. More likely to recall Levels of processing: wrong to assume that memory is so limited - we can remember vast amounts of info in a short amount of time
1.4 Applications
1.4.1 Memory aids Techniques for improving memory Cues - to trigger info and memories through the senses People recall info better if they are in the same context or situation Visual cues
2 Phobias
2.1 Key Concepts
2.1.1 Typical behaviour: considered normal - applies to the majority of people Atypical behaviour: considered abnormal - applies to minority of people Phobia: atypical fear response Agoraphobia: fear of public spaces School phobia: fear of school Social phobia: fear of embarrassment Acrophobia: fear of heights Arachnophobia: fear of spiders Heart pounding, sweating, feeling sick, dizziness
2.1.2 It's all about avoiding what you're scared of
2.2 Core Theory
2.2.1 People learn their phobias Classical conditioning: learning by association UCR: response is natural and doesn't need to be learnt UCS: something that triggers a natural response NS: doesn't trigger reaction CS: triggers learnt response CR: response that's been learnt through association
2.2.2 1. Ignores thinking behind behaviour 2. Phobia's can be learnt indirectly 3. Cannot explain the fact that some people have phobias that they have no direct experience of
2.3 Core Study
2.3.1 Watson & Rayner 1920 Little Albert, 9 months old Hammer hit a steel bar and scared him 11 months old - Albert was shown a rat and the steel bar was hit Results: By the end of 7 trials, the rat scared Albert in it's own and he would cry and avoid it Fear of white fluffy things 1. Lacks ecological validity - artifical setting 2. Can't generalise data as it was carried out on one boy 3. Unethical - Albert was caused distress
2.4 Alternative Theory
2.4.1 Evolutionary Theory Animals have evolved over time and instinctively behave in ways that allow them to survive and reproduce
2.4.2 Some things are more threatening than others
2.4.3 Doesn't agree that people are born with phobias
2.5 Applications
2.5.1 Behaviour Therapy Reversing phobias Flooding: clients immersed in their fear - works on specific phobias, but it can be dangerous Systematic desensitasion: more ethical - form new associations for gradually Implosion: client imagines worst situation rather than physically experiencing it
3 Obedience
3.1 Key Concepts
3.1.1 Obedience - obey a command from an authority figure
3.1.2 Denial of responsibility: blame your behaviour on a higher authority
3.1.3 Defiance: don't obey the authority figure
3.1.4 Agentic state: you are an agent and not to blame
3.2 Core Theory
3.2.1 Situational factors Setting: Milgram exp in a down town office - obedience decreased Culture: Hofling - culture of nurses obeying doctors Punishment: power to punish Consensus: copy others - obedience goes up 1. Research lacks ecological validity - not real life 2. Research was unethical - caused distress and deceived them 3. Ignores role of personality - suggests that behaviour is always a reflex or reaction - we live on an automatic pilot
3.3 Core Study
3.3.1 Bickman 1974 Procedure: dressed up as a guard, milkman & civilian and asked ptp to pick up litter or give money Findings: More obeyed when wearing a guard uniform - 89%, milkman - 57%, civilian - 33% 1. Lacked control of extraneous variables - ptp could have been deaf 2. Unethical - he didn't get consent from ptp 3. Experimenters were all male so it can't be generalised - women may behave differently
3.4 Alternative Theory
3.4.1 Authoritarian Personality Sees world in black and white Obeys authority and looks down on lower social class Does not like ambiguity (when things aren't clear) Fixed ideas of right and wrong, good and bad Someone who is willing to be bossed around by people of a higher status than them
4 Attachment
4.1 Key Concepts
5 Applications
5.1 Keeping order in institutions
5.1.1 Rules
5.1.2 Uniform - power and status or loss of identity
5.1.3 Punishment if a rule is broken
5.1.4 School: Detentions Prison: Solitary confinement
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