Public Health 1800-1914

zaza-zoo
Mind Map by , created over 4 years ago

A mind-map covering everything to do with Public Health from 1800-1914. If anything has been forgotten, feel free to mention it to me - it would be much appreciated!

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zaza-zoo
Created by zaza-zoo over 4 years ago
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Public Health 1800-1914
1 Why was it an issue?
1.1 Over-population
1.2 Low income
1.2.1 Poverty
1.2.1.1 Lived without proper sanitation
1.2.1.1.1 'Privies'
1.2.1.1.1.1 Holes in the ground
1.2.1.1.1.2 Badly constructed
1.2.1.1.1.3 Waste often leaked underground
1.2.1.1.2 Water often gathered from areas near privies
1.2.1.1.2.1 Cross infection between human waste and drinking water
1.2.1.1.2.1.1 Cholera
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Impossible to stop
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.2 Spread rapidly
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.3 'King Cholera'
1.2.1.1.2.1.2 Typhoid
1.2.1.2 Ate, cooked and slept in filth
1.3 Factory Towns
1.3.1 More crowding
1.3.1.1 Vast slums of bad quality houses were built
1.3.1.1.1 Cramped and dirty conditions
1.3.1.1.1.1 Meant that disease could spread rapidly amongst many people at once
1.3.2 Caused conditions to worsen
2 Why was nothing done?
2.1 Laissez-faire
2.1.1 'Let it be'
2.1.2 Politicians believed in not interfering
2.1.3 People should help themselves
2.2 When government tried to act their was often opposition
2.2.1 By those worried about the cost of improving Britain's health
2.3 Cholera outbreaks
2.3.1 1831
2.3.2 1848
2.3.3 1853
2.3.4 1866
2.3.5 Killed thousands
2.3.6 Forced something to be done about public health
2.4 Reform Act
2.4.1 1867
2.4.2 All men could vote
2.4.2.1 1868
2.4.3 Divided opinion in Liberal Party
2.4.3.1 William Gladstone (traditional Liberal) - opposing and siding with the Consecutive government
2.5 Bad understanding
2.5.1 Florence Nightingale - Edwin Chadwick
2.5.1.1 Believed problems were caused by 'miasmas'
2.5.1.1.1 Bad smells in the air
3 What changed people's minds?
3.1 Edwin Chadwick
3.1.1 Report of the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britian
3.1.1.1 1842
3.1.2 Proved living conditions among the poor were the cause of disease
3.1.3 Challenged the idea of it being too expensive to do anything
3.1.3.1 Highlighted the amount of money lost due to early deaths
3.2 Public Health Act
3.2.1 1848
3.2.2 Set up organisations to deal with public health
3.2.3 Little money
3.2.4 No power
3.3 John Snow
3.3.1 1854
3.3.2 Diagnosed that disease centred on a public water pump
3.3.2.1 Proved poor sanitation was the cause of disease
3.3.3 Defeated outbreak by disabling the pump
3.3.3.1 Replace the pump handle a year later
3.4 1858
3.4.1 The Great Stink
3.4.1.1 Forced government into decisive action
3.4.1.2 Very hot summer cause muck and waste to stink
4 What action was taken?
4.1 Various laws
4.1.1 Artisans and Labourers Dwellings Improvements Act
4.1.1.1 Enabled local councils to purchase areas of slums to destroy and rebuild them in more sanitary conditions
4.1.1.2 1875
4.1.1.3 Joseph Chamberlain
4.1.1.3.1 Improved living conditions for his urban poor
4.1.1.3.2 Birmingham mayor
4.1.1.4 Cadbury and Lever family
4.1.1.4.1 Designed entire villages so their workers had somewhere healthy to live
4.1.1.4.1.1 Very popular
4.1.1.4.1.2 'Model Villages'
4.1.1.5 Employers took a percentage of wages to supply schooling, medical care, and good housing
4.1.1.5.1 Employers gained healthier, happier, and more loyal workforce
4.1.2 Rivers Pollution Prevention Act
4.1.2.1 1876
4.1.2.2 To limit the amount of sewage pouring into rivers
4.1.2.2.1 The Thames
4.1.2.2.1.1 People's primary source of drinking water
4.1.3 Food and Drugs Act
4.1.3.1 1875
4.1.3.2 Made it a criminal offence to adulterate food o drink
4.2 The Great Stink
4.2.1 Joseph Bazalgette
4.2.1.1 Rebuilt London's sewers
4.2.1.1.1 Kept London well plumbed until the present day
4.3 Parliament
4.3.1 Strengthed 1848 Public Health Act
4.3.1.1 1875
4.3.1.2 Forced local authorities to have frequent medical and sanitary inspections
4.3.1.2.1 Made it illegal to build shoddy housing and slums
5 Was the problem solved?
5.1 No
5.2 Charles Booth
5.2.1 Sanitation improved, living standards still very low
5.2.1.1 Life and Labour of The People In London
5.2.1.1.1 1889
5.2.1.1.2 Poverty that was impossible to get out of
5.2.1.1.2.1 Seebohm Rowntree
5.2.1.1.2.1.1 Confirmed this in Poverty: A Study In Town Life
5.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Also proved poverty affected most British towns
5.2.1.1.2.1.1.2 Almost a third of families in Yorkwere unable to buy basic foodstuffs
5.2.1.1.2.1.1.2.1 Left children in squalor, malnourished and chronically underfed
5.2.1.1.2.2 Both were convinced poverty was the cause of Britain's low life expectancy and poor public health
5.2.1.1.2.3 The poor of Victorian Britain lived in fear of being forced into the workhouse
5.2.1.1.2.3.1 Workhouses
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.1 Originated in 1600's
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.2 Built to give the very poor accommodation and employment
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.3 Conditions
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.3.1 Incredibly harsh
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.3.2 Very long work days
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.3.3 Terrible jobs
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.3.4 Bad food
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.4 Inhabitants lived segregated from their families
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.5 1860's
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.5.1 More built
5.2.1.1.2.3.1.6 Became an almost inescapable part of growing old when poor
5.2.1.1.2.4 Challenged views of Britain's dominant liberal politicians
5.2.1.1.2.4.1 Lead to 'New Lberalism'
5.3 Boer War
5.3.1 Scared politicians
5.3.2 Men applying for army were physically unfit
5.3.2.1 Chronic malnutrition or disease
5.3.3 1899

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