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An overview of bonding from the Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry Syllabus

Noah Swanson
Created by Noah Swanson over 4 years ago
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Unit 1 - Chapter 1 - Part 2
1 Ionic
1.1 Involves the loss or gain of electrons
1.1.1 REDOX ( Reduction Oxidation )
1.1.2 OILRIG Oxidation Is Loss of electrons Reduction Is Gain of electrons
1.2 Between Non-Metals and metals
1.2.1 Non-Metals Commonly Groups 1+2
1.2.2 Metals Commonly Groups 6+7
1.3 Charged particles form (ions) because no. of protons and electrons are no longer equal
1.3.1 Therefore the + & - particles are strongly attracted - Electrostatic forces of attraction Which gives ionic compound their high melting & boiling points
1.4 Common Examples:
2 Covalent
2.1 Involves the sharing of a pair of electrons
2.1.1 So atoms feel like they have a full shell
2.2 Between Non-Metals only
2.2.1 An example is di-atomic molocules H2 - N2 - 02 - Cl2
2.3 There are strong bonds between the shared e- and the nuclei of the atoms
2.4 Some examples:
2.5 The forces of attraction or intermolecular forces are very weak
2.5.1 SO the melting and boiling points are very low as it takes little energy to break the intermolecular forces As A result most molecular substances are a liquid or gas at room temp
3 Metallic
3.1 Metallic Bonding:
3.1.1 The substance is describes as having a sea of delocalised electrons
3.2 When bonding occurs the outer electron(s) become free or delocalised.
3.2.1 These electrons are not paired to any atom so can flow throughout the whole substance WHich is why metallic compounds conduct electricity