Bones, Joints and Muscles

AKaur
Mind Map by AKaur, updated more than 1 year ago
AKaur
Created by AKaur over 6 years ago
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GCSE PE Mind Map on Bones, Joints and Muscles, created by AKaur on 04/27/2015.

Resource summary

Bones, Joints and Muscles
  1. What does the skeleton do?
    1. 2. Protects vital organs
      1. 1. Support and structure
        1. 3. Produce red blood cells
          1. 4. Movement
          2. Bones!
            1. Arm
              1. Upper Arm = Humerous
                1. Lower Arm
                  1. Radius - on top
                    1. Ulna - Underneath
                      1. Arm
                      2. Wrist = Carpals
                        1. Hand = Metacarpals
                          1. Fingers = Phalanges
                            1. Appendicular Skeleton
                          2. Head and Shoulders
                            1. Skull = Cranium
                              1. Jaw = Mandible
                                1. Shoulder Blade = Scapula
                                  1. Collar Bone = Clavical
                                  2. Central Core
                                    1. Breast Bone = Sternum
                                      1. Ribs
                                        1. Spine = Vertebrae
                                          1. Tail Bone = Coccyx
                                            1. Axial Skeleton
                                          2. Legs
                                            1. Upper Leg = Femur
                                              1. Knee Cap = Patella
                                                1. Lower Leg
                                                  1. Tibia (bigger bone - shin)
                                                    1. Fibula (smaller bone)
                                                    2. Ankle = Carpals
                                                      1. Foot = Metacarpals
                                                        1. Toes = Phalanges
                                                          1. Hip Bone = Pelvis
                                                        2. Joints
                                                          1. Hinge + Ball and Socket
                                                            1. Movable/ Synovial Joint
                                                              1. Where two or more bones meet
                                                                1. Has cartilage
                                                                  1. Soft, spongy material that stops bones rubbing together
                                                                    1. Protects the end of the bone
                                                                      1. Cushions the bone - Shock absorber
                                                                  2. Synovial Fluid
                                                                    1. Acts like a lubricant
                                                                      1. Stops stiffness or sticking in the joint
                                                                        1. Aids movement
                                                                  3. Allows a wide range of movement
                                                                    1. Flexion
                                                                      1. Decreasing the angle around a joint
                                                                        1. Extension
                                                                          1. Increasing the angle around a joint
                                                                            1. Adduction
                                                                              1. Moving a body part towards the axial skeleton
                                                                              2. Abduction
                                                                                1. Moving a body part away from the axial skeleton
                                                                                2. Circumduction (Rotation)
                                                                            2. Tendons
                                                                              1. Attach muscle to bone
                                                                                1. Remember: if ligaments connect bones to bones then tendons must attach muscle to bone
                                                                              2. Ligaments
                                                                                1. Attach bones to bones
                                                                                  1. Remember: Lig sounds like leg and you leg is made up of bones so a ligament must attach bones to bones
                                                                                2. To help heal any muscular injury, you need to use RICE
                                                                                  1. R = Rest
                                                                                    1. I = Ice
                                                                                      1. C = Compression
                                                                                        1. E = Elevation
                                                                                        2. Name all the muscles (labelled a-n) --->
                                                                                          1. 3 types of muscles
                                                                                            1. 1. Involuntary
                                                                                              1. They work all the time without you doing/ thinking about it
                                                                                                1. E.G. Gut, Stomach, Bladder etc.
                                                                                              2. 2. Voluntary
                                                                                                1. The muscles that work on your command. You have to contract and relax them
                                                                                                  1. E.G. Bicep, Quads, Pectorals
                                                                                                    1. Voluntary muscles work in pairs
                                                                                                      1. Agonist
                                                                                                        1. The working muscle
                                                                                                          1. It becomes shorter and fatter as it contracts
                                                                                                        2. Antagonist
                                                                                                          1. Non-working muscle
                                                                                                            1. It becomes longer and thinner as it relaxes
                                                                                                    2. 3. Cardiac
                                                                                                      1. Only applies to your heart
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