B1 Topic 3 Inter-relationships

Lauren Jane Speed
Mind Map by Lauren Jane Speed, updated more than 1 year ago
Lauren Jane Speed
Created by Lauren Jane Speed over 6 years ago


GCSE Biology Mind Map on B1 Topic 3 Inter-relationships, created by Lauren Jane Speed on 04/30/2015.

Resource summary

B1 Topic 3 Inter-relationships
  1. Drugs
    1. Depressants
      1. ALCOHOL - Decrease activity of the brain. Slows down response of the nervous system & poor judgement
      2. Stimulants
        1. NICOTINE/CAFFINE - Increase activity of the brain & increase neurotransmitters. Makes you feel more alert & awake
        2. Painkillers
          1. MORPHINE - decrease feeling pain. Work in different ways such as morphine blocks the nerve impulses of the brain
          2. Hallucinogens
            1. LSD - Distort whats seen & heard by altering pathways nerve impulses take
            2. REACTION TIME - is how quickly you respond to a stimulus - can be tested by the ruler drop test
            3. Smoking, Alcohol & Transplants
              1. Smoking
                1. Tabacco smoke contains carbon monoxide, which combines with the hemaglobin in the red blood cells causing less oxygen to be carried. In pregnant women it can deprive the feutos of oxygen causing it to be born underweight
                  1. Tabacco smoke also contains carginogens like tar. Lung cancer is much more common in smokers & is addcitive
                  2. Alcohol
                    1. Slows down reactions as it a depressent & blurred vision and lower inhibitions leading people to do this they normally wouldnt
                      1. Its poisonous. Usually the liver removes it but drinking often liver cells can die forming sscar tissue which blocks blood flow - Chirrosis of the liver & also brain damage
                      2. Transplants
                        1. Organs that have been damaged can be replaced. Living donors can donate one of their kidneys or a peice of their liver
                          1. People who are willing to donate can do so or use organs when youve died. People think if youve dameged your own organ you dont deserve a new one
                            1. Because of the shortage often people have to change their lifestyle to be considered. E.g Loosing weight & prove you can stop drinking
                          2. Infectious diseases
                            1. Pathogens are micro-organisms that cause disease (germs)
                              1. Water
                                1. Picked up by drinking dirty water. E.g cholara causing diheroea & dehydration
                                2. Food
                                  1. Eating contaminated foods. E.g salmonella causes food poisoning due to uncooked food
                                  2. Air
                                    1. Carried by droplets in a sneeze or cough so other people can breathe them in. E.g Flu
                                    2. Contact
                                      1. Contaminated surfaces including skin. E.g athletes foot carried by touching the same as someone infected
                                      2. Body fluid
                                        1. Such as blood E.g sharing needles
                                        2. Animal Vectors
                                          1. Mosquito carry protozan that causes malaria damaging the brain. House fly causing dynestry - dhiarreo
                                          2. Physical Barriers
                                            1. THE SKIN clots quickly if it gets damaged to stop microorganisms getting in
                                              1. THE RESPIRITORY STYSTEM - is lined with cillia and mucus. Mucus catches the dust before reaching the luns and mucus pushes it away from the lungs
                                              2. Chemical Barries
                                                1. THE EYES in tears produce lysozyme which kills bacteria on the surface of the eye
                                                  1. THE STOMACH kills bacteria with the hydrochloric acid
                                                2. Plants can defend themseves
                                                  1. When plants are attacked by pathogens they release chemicals to defend themselves
                                                    1. Some of these have antibacterial effects, humans can use these plants to help them too
                                                      1. E.g TEA TREE is an australian shrub that produces oil killin bacteria., this is used for antibacterial products like face clensers
                                                        1. ANTISEPTICS
                                                          1. Destroy bacteria/stop them growing. Used outside of the body to clean wounds & surfaces. Prevent infection instead of treat it
                                                            1. Used in household producs eg bathroom cleaners & in hospitals to prevent infection
                                                            2. ANTIBIOTIC
                                                              1. ANTIBACERIALS
                                                                1. E.g penacillin used to teat bacterial infections. They kill bacteria & stop them growin
                                                                2. ANTIFUNALS
                                                                  1. E.g nystatin used to treat funal infections. They kill the fungi & stop it growing
                                                                  2. Drugs used inside the body & treat people already infected but doesnt kill the virus
                                                                3. Antiseptics & Antibiotics
                                                                  1. 1) Bacteria can mutate, this sometimes causes them to be resistant to an antibiotic.
                                                                    1. 2)When you take the antibiotic only the non resistant bacteria will die, the rest will continue to live and reproduce & the resistant population will increase (natural selection
                                                                      1. 3) Resistant strains could cause serious infections such as MRSA that cannot be killed by antibiotics
                                                                        1. 4) Doctors overprescribing or not finishing the course of antibiotics has resulted in many more resistant strains. so wont get any antibiotics for a casual cold
                                                                        2. Energy & Biomass
                                                                          1. 1) Energy from the sun is the source of energy for nearly everything on earth
                                                                            1. 2) Plants convert a small % of light energy into glucose. The rabbit then eats the plant & uses some of the energy it gets, the rest is stored. Then the fox eats the rabbit & gains energy (The food chain)
                                                                              1. 3) Energy is used up to stay alive (respiration) alot of energy is lost to surroundings as they keep a constant temperature
                                                                                1. 4) The energy is said to be lost (its still there it just cant be used by the next animal
                                                                                  1. 5) Energy is also lost in droppings
                                                                                    1. 6) This is why a food chain doesnt have more than 5 trophic levels. So much energy is lost theres not enough left to support them
                                                                                      1. 1) Biomass is how much the creatures would weigh if they were put together
                                                                                        1. 2) Each time you go up a tropic level - E.g the producer is eaten by the consumer, the weight of the consumer will be less than that og the producer
                                                                                        2. Paratism & Mutualism
                                                                                          1. Patatism
                                                                                            1. Fleas
                                                                                              1. Live of the fur of animals and suck their blood & can reproduce
                                                                                              2. Head lice
                                                                                                1. Live on humans scalps & suck blood
                                                                                                2. Tapeworms
                                                                                                  1. Attatch themselves to the intestine wall of their host & absorb their nutrients causing malnutrition
                                                                                                  2. Mistletoe
                                                                                                    1. A plant that absorbs water & nutrients from its host reducing growth
                                                                                                    2. LIVE ON THE HOST & GETS NO BENEFIT
                                                                                                    3. Mutualism
                                                                                                      1. Oxpeckers
                                                                                                        1. Live on buffalo, they eat pests of the buffalo & its a source of food for them and alert them of predators (cleaner species)
                                                                                                        2. Cleaner fish
                                                                                                          1. Eat dead skin and paracites of larger fish & so they get food
                                                                                                          2. Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in legumes
                                                                                                            1. They carry the bacteria in the nodules of the roots. The bacteria gets a constant supply of sugar & the plants get nitrates
                                                                                                            2. Chemosynthic bactreria
                                                                                                              1. Live in giant tube worms. The tube worms supply the bacteria with chemicals which the bacteria turn into food for them & the host
                                                                                                            3. BOTH BENEFIT
                                                                                                            4. Human Activity & the environment
                                                                                                              1. The population continues to rise, mostly due to modern medicines that stop disease from spreading & modern farming methods that can produce enough food for everyone
                                                                                                                1. This means that non-renewable recourses are being used
                                                                                                                  1. More & more waste is being produced
                                                                                                                    1. More and more pollutants are being produced... Phosphates, nitrates and sulphur dioxide
                                                                                                                    2. Eutrophication
                                                                                                                      1. 1) Fertilisers containing nitrates are essential to modern farming, without them crops wouldnt grow as well and food yield would be down ThThis is because crops take out nitrates from the soil and it needs to be replaced
                                                                                                                        1. Excess nitrates are washed into the rivers causing a rapid growth of algea
                                                                                                                          1. Some plants start dying due to the little light thats gained as its blocked by the excess algea
                                                                                                                            1. Number of microbes increase as they feed on the dead materials
                                                                                                                              1. Oxygen cant be produced as plants cant photosynthesis and the oxygen there is is used up by the microbes & so fish sufficate & die
                                                                                                                      2. Recycling
                                                                                                                        1. Recycling conserves our natural recourses meaning the amounts of non-renewable recources wont decrease
                                                                                                                          1. If materials arent recycled theyre thrown a way as waste. There is more waste so more land is used as landfill & can add polution from toxic waste
                                                                                                                            1. More materials have to be manifactured or extracted to make new products in stead of reusing them
                                                                                                                            2. METALS - extracted by there ore, there is a limited amount avaliable, we have to mine for ores too usually releacing CO2
                                                                                                                              1. PAPER - producted from wood, recycling means that less trees have to be knocked down which stops deforistation
                                                                                                                                1. PLASTICS - most made by crude oil, so recycling helps to reserve oil resources. They also take ages to decompose, so theyd fill up landfill
                                                                                                                                  1. Problems Recycling
                                                                                                                                    1. 1) Still uses energy, collecting sorting ect
                                                                                                                                      1. 2) Can be time consuming to sort, eg plastics
                                                                                                                                        1. 3) The equiptment is expensive
                                                                                                                                          1. 4) Sometimes the quality isnt as good as new materials
                                                                                                                                            1. 5) Some things can only be recycled a certain num,ber of times eg paper
                                                                                                                                          2. Indicator species
                                                                                                                                            1. Organisms that are sensitive to changes in their environment that can be used to monitor human activity
                                                                                                                                              1. Water Pollution
                                                                                                                                                1. 1) If raw sewage or other pollutants containing nitrates are released into a river the bacteria population will increase & use up oxygen
                                                                                                                                                  1. 2) STONEFLY LARVAE & FRESHWATER SHRIMPS are good indictators as theyre sensitive to the concentration of disolved oxygen. IF YOU FIND THEM, THE WATER IS CLEAN
                                                                                                                                                    1. 3) BLOODWORM & SLUDGE WORN indicate HIGH levels of pollutuion, theyve adapted to live there
                                                                                                                                                      1. Dissolved oxyem meters & chemical tests also measures dissolved oxygen
                                                                                                                                                      2. Air pollution
                                                                                                                                                        1. 1) LITCHEN is very sensitive to concentartion of SULPHUR DIOXIDE, the MORE the litchen in one area the CLEANER the area
                                                                                                                                                          1. 2) BLACKSPOT FUNGUS on roses are also sensitive to the SULPHUR DIOXIDE. also shows CLEAR AIR
                                                                                                                                                            1. 3) ouside the city theres less sulphur dioxide in the air and so less litchen
                                                                                                                                                              1. Electronic meters & lab tests measure sulphur dioxide
                                                                                                                                                            2. The Carbon Cycle
                                                                                                                                                              1. 1) The ONLY thing that gets rid of CO2 is PHOTOSYNTHESIS- plants use it to make proteins
                                                                                                                                                                1. 2) Animals eat the carbon compound in the plants & passes along the food chain
                                                                                                                                                                  1. 3) Plants & Animals RESPIRE and PUT CO2 INTO THE AIR
                                                                                                                                                                    1. 4) Plants & Animals eventually DIE & DECAY, when they do there broken down by BACTERIA & FUNGI. These decomposes add C02 to the air
                                                                                                                                                                      1. 5) FOSSIL FUELS are burned and release CO2 into the air
                                                                                                                                                                      2. The Nitrogen Cycle
                                                                                                                                                                        1. 1) Nitrogen is about 78% of the atmosphere, its very unreactive so cant be used directly by plants. Nitrogen is needed to make proteins so they have to get it somehow
                                                                                                                                                                          1. 2) Nitrogen has to be turned into compound eg NITRATES. Plants can absorb nitrates from the soil to make the proteins. Animals get the protein by eating the plants so its passed along the food chain
                                                                                                                                                                            1. 3) DECOMPOSERS (bacteria, fungi) in the soil breaks down dead plants and animals, turning their proteins and urea into AMMONIA
                                                                                                                                                                              1. 4) Soil bacteria - NITRIFYING BACTERIA turns AMMONIA INTO NITRATES & Nitrates can be taken up by the plants
                                                                                                                                                                                1. 5) NITROGEN FIXATION turns NITROGEN into NITRATES - by LIGHTNING & NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. DECOMPOSER BACTERIA - decomposes PROTEINS & UREA into AMMONIA
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. NITRIFTYING BACTERIA - turn AMMONIA in decaying matter into NITRATES
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA - turns NITROGEN into NITRATES
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. DENITIFYING BACTERIA - turns NITRATES back to NITROGEN - no help for living things
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