Period of reaction

Alexandra Gough5786
Mind Map by Alexandra Gough5786, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexandra Gough5786
Created by Alexandra Gough5786 over 6 years ago
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Period of reaction in Russia

Resource summary

Period of reaction
  1. Reasons
    1. Russo-Turkish War
      1. 15,567 killed
        1. Victory took longer than expected
      2. Famine
        1. Over focus on industry and during war less were working --> POOR HARVEST
          1. Loss of support and rise of radicals who attacked the Tsar
        2. Polish Revolt 1863
          1. Policy of Russification
          2. Death of Alexander II's oldest son
            1. Assassination attempts
              1. By 'Pure Russians'
                1. Many attempts carried out by nobles
                  1. Gave conservatives opportunity to attack the reformist polices
                2. Fear
                3. Mistress/new wide distanced him from his liberal relatives
                  1. More aloof and less resistant to those opposed to reform
                4. Reactionary ministers
                  1. Dimitri Tolstoy
                    1. Piton Shuvalov
                      1. Konstantin Pahlem
                        1. Alexander Timashev
                        2. Education
                          1. Authority over primary schools returned to church
                            1. Zemstva's control limited
                              1. Critical education (history or literature) was banned
                                1. Only students who went to a traditional school could go to uni
                                2. Student clubs only allowed 7 members and permission/supervision
                                  1. International students forced to return
                                    1. However
                                      1. Many refused and no. radicals increased
                                    2. Female education decreased
                                      1. eradicate western ideas
                                        1. Increase in censorship
                                        2. Feared that an educated population would rebel
                                        3. Police/Judicial
                                          1. Work of Third Section increased
                                            1. Political crimes
                                              1. No longer public courts
                                                1. Military courts
                                                  1. Secret sentences
                                              2. Increased censorship
                                                1. Executions and exiles
                                                  1. Trial of 50 and Trial of 193
                                                    1. 153 of the 193 were freed and remaining were given light sentences
                                                  2. Attitude to ethnic minorities
                                                    1. Poles lost liberties following 1863 revolt
                                                      1. Russification
                                                        1. Hostile attitude towards Poles, Finns, Jews and other minorities
                                                          1. More radicals emerged
                                                      2. Melikov's Commissions
                                                        1. Release of political prisoners
                                                          1. Relaxation of censorship
                                                            1. removal of salt tax
                                                              1. Restrictions on the Zemtva lifted
                                                                1. Third Section abolished
                                                                  1. However, the Okhrana was created and was just as oppressive and feared
                                                                  2. Plans for a constitution
                                                                    1. BUT
                                                                      1. Alexander II was assassinated as he travelled back to the Winter Palace where he planned to sign the document
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