Public Health

James Burns
Mind Map by James Burns, updated more than 1 year ago
James Burns
Created by James Burns over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Public Health, created by James Burns on 05/03/2015.

Resource summary

Public Health
  1. Industrial Revolution
    1. The towns of the medieval period were not densely packed compared to Victorian houses.
      1. Industry and changes in agriculture meant many farmers moved to towns. These towns were packed with factories and poor quality housing. Anyone who owned land could build on it without planning permission, meaning there were no regulations
        1. Laissez-faire existed where people didn't want the government interfering with their lives
          1. Attempts at providing fresh water and removing sewage was poor as sewage was discharged into rivers, overflowing cesspits or even the streets. Smoke from houses filled the air, causing lung problems
            1. Life in 1900 wasn't much better
              1. Slums were still very big in large cities and industrial towns
                1. Poor people were housed in tenements- damp, insanitary places with no running water. Large families lived together and shared a toilet with their neighbours
                  1. The poor worked long hours for low wages. Many people couldn't afford to see a doctor and they struggled to feed their children well
                    1. There were many infant deaths and fake medicines were very popular, these medicines often did more harm than good
              2. Diseases such as smallpox, influenza, typhus and typhoid fever were common in these places
        2. Cholera
          1. Cholera arrived in Britain from the east in 1831 and become an epidemic by 1832.
            1. Cholera spreads through sewage and gets into drinking water. It causes diarrhoea and the sufferers die from loss of water
              1. The government introduced regulations about the burial of the dead, but the epidemic declined and interest was lost by the government
                1. People did not know what caused cholera. Epidemics recurred in 1848, 1854 and 1866
                2. Sir William Beveridge published the Beveridge report in 1942. In it he called for the state provision of social security
                  1. The report became a bestseller. Beveridge argued that all people should have the right to be free from want, disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness
                    1. Bevan then introduced the National Health Service
                      1. Compulsory national insurance was introduced in 1948 to pay for the NHS. Doctors and dentists were wooed with a fixed payment for each registered patient. They were also allowed to continue treating private fee-paying patients
                        1. By 1948. all hospitals had joined the NHS and 92% of doctors had
            2. Chadwick's Report
              1. In 1842, Edwin Chadwick published a "Report on the sanitary condition of the labouring population of Great Britain"
                1. His great idea was what improved public health
                  1. His idea was that a healthy workforce would save money rather than cost money
                    1. The report and statistics describing the levels of sickness shocked many privileged classes. People campaigned for improvements in 1844 and as a result, the Health of Towns Association was set up.
                      1. The government also introduced the Public Health Bill. It was apposed at first, but passed when a new cholera epidemic broke out. It became the first 'PUBLIC HEALTH ACT' in 1848
                        1. The main provision of the act was for Central and Local health boards. The local boards had to be approved by ratepayers so that the effect could take place in local areas.
              2. John Snow
                1. The connection between contaminated water and cholera was discovered by John Snow in 1854.
                  1. He studied the occurrence of a cholera outbreak in the Broad Street area of London and noticed that the victims used the same pump. He then removed the handle of the pump and ended the outbreak
                  2. The National Health Service
                    1. After the First World War, Lloyd George promised to make Britain a land "fit for heroes". A Ministry of Health was set up in 1919 and council houses were made for the soldiers
                      1. The first world war had drained Britain's resources. An economic slump in the 1920s caused rising unemployment. The government cut back spending on welfare
                        1. During the 1930s, things got worse when there was global economic depression. By 1932, 22% of British workers were unemployed. Poverty and unemployment were particularly bad in Wales, Scotland and Northern England
                          1. Home in poor areas had no electricity or sanitation. The 1930 Housing Act planned to clear slum housing however this progress was hindered by the depression
                  3. The end of Laissaz-Faire
                    1. Snow was proved right about the spreading of disease when Pasteur discovered germs
                      1. In 1871 and 1872 the Local Government Board was founded and divided the country into "sanitary areas" that were overseen by medical officers of health
                        1. Another Public Health Act was brought in by Disraeli's government in 1875, along with the Artisan' Dwellings Act (Made house owners responsible for their houses)
                          1. The 1875 act was more effective than the previous public health act as it forced local councils to act on the health
                            1. The Artisan's Dwellings Act allowed for compulsory purchase of slum housing and rebuilding by local councils
                              1. Victorian engineering produced improvements in the form of brick-lined sewer networks and steam-driven pumped water systems
                                1. Women
                                  1. Women were not allowed to attend universities this means they couldn't be doctors. Many victorian men regarded women as being less able to work in jobs requiring professionalism
                                    1. The first British Woman to qualify as a doctor was Margaret Ann Bulkley and was born in the 1790s, she did this by dressing up as a man
                                    2. Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman in modern times to be awarded a medical degree under her own name in 1849
                                      1. The need for women in professional roles increased during the world wars
                                        1. In 1975 the Sex Discrimination Act meant that equal opportunities for men and women had to be available in all jobs
                      2. Philanthropists
                        1. These were rich people that helped the poor
                          1. Charles Booth
                            1. In 1889, shipping owner Charles Booth surveyed living conditions in London's East End and published 'Life and Labour of the People in London' showing a link between poverty and health
                              1. A similar survey was made in York by Seebohm Rowntree (Rowntree's chocolate) his work, published in 1901 would greatly influence chancellor David Lloyd Georg
                                1. Cadburys tried to provide good homes and better lifestyles for their workers in Bournville.
                                  1. When the Boer war broke out in 1899, army officers found that 40% of volunteers were unfit for service. Britain then realised that a healthy population meant a better army
                                    1. Many workers organised societies which were linked to trade unions. This meant workers paid a subscription each week and in return, received medical help.
                        2. Liberal Government Reforms
                          1. In 1906, the link between poverty and ill health had been established. The new liberal government realised they had to take action. Many MP's were worried about losing votes to the new Labour Party that supported working classes
                            1. Under the guidance of Lloyd George, the Liberals began to introduce new measures:
                              1. Free school meals -1906
                                1. School medical inspections-1907
                                  1. Old age Pension act - 1909
                                    1. Labour Exchanges (job centres)-1909
                                      1. National Insurance Act -1911
                              2. Lloyd George had to overcome lots of opposition in the house of lords to get these reforms
                                1. National Insurance was't compulsory and it only covered people who paid in. These people could then get sick pay and medical treatment from a panel doctors working for the scheme. The scheme also provided unemployment pay
                                  1. These reforms built the start of the modern welfare state
                            2. WW2
                              1. The second world war broke down social distinctions and brought people together. The raising of large armies made powerful people take notice of the health problems of the poor. Also the evacuation of children increased awareness in rural middle England.
                                1. Air raids prompted to government to set up the medical service offering free treatment to air raid casualties
                                  1. After WW2, people looked for improvements in society
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