Biotelemetric methods

Ron Togunov
Mind Map by Ron Togunov, updated more than 1 year ago
Ron Togunov
Created by Ron Togunov over 6 years ago
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Biotelemetric methods
  1. Acoustic telemetry
    1. Implant
      1. External
        1. Wave properties
          1. Pressure wave
            1. Environmental effects
              1. ^ Temperature ^ speed
                1. ^ pressure ^ speed
                  1. ^ Salinity ^ speed
                  2. Passive
                    1. Active
                      1. Sonar
                        1. Sizemic
                        2. Positioning
                          1. Echo-location
                            1. Sonar
                              1. Passive
                              2. Sizemic
                              3. Triangulation
                                1. Using implats
                                  1. listening to sounds
                                    1. GPS fastloc
                                      1. aquire pseudorange
                                        1. Too large to send over satellite
                                        2. Euphemurus data is aquired after tag retrieval
                                      2. Data Aquisition
                                        1. Popup tag
                                          1. Popup Satellite archival tag
                                            1. SRDL
                                              1. PSAD
                                              2. Acoustic
                                                1. Data storage Tags (DSTs)
                                              3. RF Telemetry
                                                1. Wave properties
                                                  1. electromagnetic radiation
                                                    1. Electric & magnetic fields at right angles
                                                      1. Orrentation determites polarity
                                                        1. Determined by electric field
                                                    2. Frequency
                                                      1. Wavelength
                                                        1. Period
                                                          1. VHF
                                                            1. 30-300 MHz
                                                              1. on ground
                                                              2. UHF
                                                                1. over 300 MHz
                                                                  1. Sattelites
                                                                2. Amplitude
                                                                  1. Behaviour
                                                                    1. Defraction
                                                                      1. Reflection
                                                                        1. Absorption
                                                                          1. Cannot pass through salt water
                                                                            1. Not absorbed by dielectrits
                                                                            2. Scattering
                                                                              1. Interference
                                                                                1. Dopler effect
                                                                              2. Antennae
                                                                                1. emit and detect RFs
                                                                                  1. Gain: degree of directionality
                                                                                    1. Described by antennae pattern & beam width
                                                                                    2. Impedence
                                                                                      1. Resistance to current flow
                                                                                        1. impedence matching
                                                                                          1. impedence associated with wavelength must be same in antenna and Coax cable
                                                                                      2. Positioning
                                                                                        1. VHF
                                                                                          1. Radio tracking
                                                                                            1. Very laborious
                                                                                          2. Sattelite
                                                                                            1. GPS
                                                                                              1. Tag listens to GPS
                                                                                                1. Euphemurus data
                                                                                                  1. Positions of the satellies relative to earth
                                                                                                  2. Pseudorange
                                                                                                    1. Distance between tag and satellitse
                                                                                                2. Argos
                                                                                                  1. use doppler effect
                                                                                                  2. More expensive
                                                                                                3. Data aquisition
                                                                                                  1. VHF
                                                                                                    1. UHF
                                                                                                      1. Argos
                                                                                                        1. Irridium
                                                                                                          1. Handshaking
                                                                                                            1. Satellite network
                                                                                                          2. GSM
                                                                                                            1. Cell phones
                                                                                                            2. Datalogger
                                                                                                              1. Must be retrieved
                                                                                                                1. Stores info on board
                                                                                                                2. SRDL
                                                                                                              2. Ethics
                                                                                                                1. Three Rs
                                                                                                                  1. Refine
                                                                                                                    1. Best methots
                                                                                                                    2. Replace
                                                                                                                      1. Model
                                                                                                                        1. non wild animls
                                                                                                                        2. Reduce
                                                                                                                          1. Smaller sample
                                                                                                                        3. Three issues with Biotelemetry
                                                                                                                          1. Intensive use of capture and handling techniques
                                                                                                                            1. use methods from one spp in another
                                                                                                                              1. Know your animal
                                                                                                                                1. Surgical procedures are invasive
                                                                                                                                  1. Risk of infection
                                                                                                                                  2. Know your technology
                                                                                                                                    1. Test things out
                                                                                                                                  3. Physiological impoct on animalso
                                                                                                                                    1. mass must be less than 2%
                                                                                                                                      1. right shape
                                                                                                                                        1. External tags can get caught in things and change bedavior
                                                                                                                                        2. Attachment is important
                                                                                                                                          1. Animal's behaviour
                                                                                                                                            1. Risk of infection
                                                                                                                                              1. How it will be released
                                                                                                                                                1. negative results must be reported
                                                                                                                                                  1. Animal growth
                                                                                                                                                    1. Stretchy collars
                                                                                                                                                  2. Limited potential for monitoring posts-release.
                                                                                                                                                2. Technology
                                                                                                                                                  1. Battery
                                                                                                                                                    1. Sensors
                                                                                                                                                      1. Trasnducer
                                                                                                                                                      2. Transmitter
                                                                                                                                                        1. Transponder
                                                                                                                                                          1. emits signal after interigation
                                                                                                                                                            1. E.g fish & birds in nests
                                                                                                                                                              1. Very light/cheap
                                                                                                                                                            2. Biology
                                                                                                                                                              1. Home range
                                                                                                                                                                1. Minimum Convex polygon
                                                                                                                                                                  1. samllest polygon contiaingn 95% of all points
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sensitive to small sample size and
                                                                                                                                                                    2. Kernel Density estimation
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Utilization distribution
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Probability distribution. probabilitf of seeing an animal in a location
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Smoothing the point pattern
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Based on bandwidth
                                                                                                                                                                            1. hRef
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Not very accurate. esp when distribution is clumped
                                                                                                                                                                              2. Least squares cross validation
                                                                                                                                                                                1. bandwidth minimizes variation between true and estimated UD
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Sensetive to sample size
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Subjective choice
                                                                                                                                                                              3. See intensity of area use
                                                                                                                                                                              4. Brownian bridge
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Calculates UD
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Takes into account sequence of poins
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Estimated w/ Maximum likelihood
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Habitat selection/utilization
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Detirmine area restricted use
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Time spent in area
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Convert area to grid
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Time spent in each square
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Must be same for all individuals
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. First passage time
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Time to cross a circle of a given radius
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Pass through areas have low FPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Foraging areas have high FPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Increases with radius
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. plot variance of log(FPT)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Highest variance = spatial scale of ARS
                                                                                                                                                                                                3. estimating environmental covariates
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Cox-proportional hazards model
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Probability of an event occuring
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. output is a ratio
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Below 1 = less probability animal will leave
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. LME
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Include fixed and random effects
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Fixed effetcs
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. informative
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Random effets
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Uninformative
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. needed to avoid pseudoreplicaiton to minimize type 1 error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. eg. measuring same individual or temporally correlated data.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. eg. individual ID
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Can be confounding
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Assume normality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. GAMM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. When we do not have a normal distribution
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. And transformation is not appropriate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Model realtionship as a smoothing function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Penalized qubic regression splines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Based on knots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. More knots fit data closer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                5. Migration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Data filtering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. first step of data analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Sources of error
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Errors can occur from insufficient satellite (ARGOS)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Animal motion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Speed Filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Removes locations greater than given speed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Speed Distance ange
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Removes locations with unrealistic speed and turning angle higher than threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Aust filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Based on moving filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Speed between each point in window. W/ speed limit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Douglas Argos filter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Uses 3 methods based on distance threshold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Can include turning angle test
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Multiple state-space methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Estimate state of unobservable process from observed dataset
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. looking for outliers/ unlikely data points
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