1. The invention of the Steam Engine in
1789 made life quicker and more efficient.
It made transportation a much easier
process, producing a 'railway mania' in
which 6800 miles of track was built in
2. Growth of cities was apparent, with
population reaching 36 million by the early
1900's. This growth in population also
meant a growth in industrys and factories.
Many factory owners put profit above the
health and safety of their workers.
Children and young women were
employed in terrible conditions in textile
mills and mines. Furnaces were operated
without proper safety checks. Workers in
factories and mills were deafened by
steam hammers and machinery. hours
were long and there were no holidays.
3. The household rubbish was thrown out into the narrow streets and the air was filled with black smoke from
the factories chimneys. Dirty streets and cramped living was a perfect breeding ground for diseases. More than
31,000 people died during an outbreak of cholera in 1832 . Houses
were made further apart, rubbish collection was introduced and public health inspectors had to be provided by
the local council. They basically had to go round whatever town or city they were employed in and check that
sanitation and health of the people was alright.
'It was a town of red brick, or
brick that would have been
red if the smoke and ashes
had allowed it.'
Written by Charles Dickens,
'Hard Times'. About a wealthy
man named Gradgind who is in an
'For all day the wheels were turning, droning...'
Written by Elizabeth Browning, 'The
Cry of the Children'. About the
employment of childrenin mines and
factories, politically motivated.