Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1

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Mind map of key topics for Edexcel AS chemistry Unit 1. Details and notes added to each section. VERY detailed

Resource summary

Edexcel AS Chemistry Unit 1
  1. Formulae, equation & moles
    1. Terms
      1. Equations
        1. Concentrations

          Annotations:

          • Safety precautions. If dilute acid spilt= add water to dilute it/ ass alkali to neutralise it/ mop it up with wet paper towel.  They are corrosive.  PPM
          1. Moles

            Annotations:

            • The amount of any substance containing the same number of entities as there are atoms in 12g of Carbon-12. Moles (solid)= mass/Mr Moles (liquid)=concentration times volume Moles gas= volume (dm^3)/24
            1. Molar volume

              Annotations:

              • Moles in a gas= volume (dm^3)/ 24
              1. Percentage Yield

                Annotations:

                • Actual yield/ theoretical yield multiplied by 100. Actual yield will be given in the question. Find the theoretical yield using moles/ mass equation.
                1. Atom economy
                  1. Avogadro constant

                    Annotations:

                    • Used to find the number of atoms/ particles in a molecule. Use the equation with moles and Av which is a specific number that they will tell you in the question. 
                    1. Experiments
                    2. Energetics & enthalpy changes
                      1. Terms

                        Annotations:

                        • Activation energy: the minimum energy required for the particles to collide successfully and react. 
                        1. Enthalpy level diagrams

                          Attachments:

                          1. Endothermic & exothermic

                            Annotations:

                            • Endothermic: enthalpy change is positive. Requires heat energy and shown in reduction of temperature. Usually bond breaking.  Exothermic: enthalpy change is negative. Gives out heat energy and shown in an increase in temperature. Usually bond making
                            1. Definitions of standard enthalpy changes

                              Annotations:

                              • Formation Combustion Atomisation Neutralisation Reaction (ones needed for Edexcel AS)
                              1. Hess's Law

                                Annotations:

                                • Hess's Law states that the enthalpy change of a reaction is independent of the route taken. 
                                1. Limitations

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Average bond enthalpies used. All reactants and products must be in their standard states. 
                                2. Coffee cup experiment

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Q= mass times 4.18 times change in temperature. (Q=MCT)
                                  1. Sources of error/assumptions

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Heat loss, imcomplete combustion of fuel, evaporation of fuel from spirit lamp.  Assumes that the density of the liquid is the same as water. Assumes there are standard states. Assumes that the specific heat capacity of any solution is the same as water. 
                                  2. Bond enthalpy

                                    Annotations:

                                    • The energy needed to break one mole of a bond in a gaseous molecule, forming gaseous atoms. 
                                    1. Standard states

                                      Annotations:

                                      • 1 atmosphere of pressure (100KPa) and a stated temperature (298K)
                                    2. Atomic structure & the periodic table
                                      1. Definitions

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Allotropes Mole Isotope Relative isotopic mass Relative atomic mass
                                        1. Mass spectrometer

                                          Annotations:

                                          • 1.  Vaporisation 2. Ionisation- bombarded with high energy electrons which knock off electrons. 3. Acceleration- in electric field.  4. Deflection- lighter/highly charged ions are deflected more. In magnetic field.  5. Detection- forms a mass spectrum
                                          1. Uses of mass spectrometer

                                            Annotations:

                                            • radioactive dating in space research. In sport for drug testing. 
                                            1. Definition of ionisation energies

                                              Annotations:

                                              • 1st ionisation energy: the energy required to remove 1 electron from 1 mol of gaseous atoms to form 1 mol of gaseous 1+ ions.  2nd ionisation energy: the energy required to remove 1 electron from 1 mol of gaseous 1+ ions to form 1 mol of gaseous 2+ ions.  Ionisation energies are always endothermic (positive)
                                              1. Electronic structure
                                                1. S, P orbitals and their shapes
                                                2. Trends & properties

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Ionisation energy increases across period and decreases down group due to shielding/ increased atomic radius/ decreased nuclear attraction. 
                                                  1. Polarisation

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Small, highly charged cation and large anion. Will lead to some covalent character. This is proven when theoretical and experimental lattice enthalpies differ on Born Haber cycles. This is the reason for this. The small positive cation polarises the large anion. 
                                                    1. Periodicity

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Repeating pattern or trends across a period.
                                                    2. Solubility rules

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Remember from GCSE. Learn a table. This will help when constructing balanced equation to know if something is (aq) or (s). Usually for longer questions.
                                                      1. Indicators

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • Learn for titrations. Phenolphthlalein and methyl orange are the ones needed to know. Phenol= pink in alkali, colourless in acid. Methyl orange= red in acid, yellow in alkali
                                                      2. Bonding
                                                        1. Ionic bonding

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • Electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. Forms a lattice. Also repulsion between negative electron clouds.  Ionic compounds only conduct electricity in molten state as ions are free to move around the whole structure and carry a charge- they are fixed in solid state.
                                                          1. Covalent Bonding

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • attraction between the nucleus and the outer electrons.  Can be simple (S) or giant (Si). Simple only has weak intermolecular forces but giant/ macromolecular has strong covalent bonds. Electrostatic attraction.
                                                            1. Metallic Bonding

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Electrostatic forces of attraction between positive ions and negative delocalised electrons. The more electrons, the more forces. The greater the charge of the ion, the stronger the forces. Giant lattices of metal ions surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons. 
                                                            2. The alkanes
                                                              1. General

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • CnH2n+2 Burn with clean flame. Hydrocarbons( only have carbon and hydrogen atoms) Are saturated Only single bonds Methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane etc...
                                                                1. Isomers

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • Can be shown in skeletal/ displayed/ structural formula. Find isomers by drawing out skeletal then adding methyl groups, shortening the longest chain but still has the same number of atoms.
                                                                  1. Fuel

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Definition of a fuel: something when burned produces heat/ energy.   
                                                                    1. Sustainability

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • Not sustainable as from crude oil which is non-renewable.  Alternate greener methods could be biofuels (from plants= carbon neutral)
                                                                      1. Mechanisms

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • Learn mechanism for free radical homolytic substitution reaction (with Cl2 and UV light).

                                                                        Attachments:

                                                                        1. Less reactive than alkenes

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • Weak pi bond. 
                                                                          1. Boiling point increases with chain length

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • The number of electrons per molecule increases so the strength of the London forces increases.  More branching = lower boiling point. (Less branching allows closer contact between the molecules creating stronger London forces.)
                                                                            1. Cycloalkanes

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • Same general formula as alkenes (CnH2n)
                                                                            2. The alkenes
                                                                              1. General

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • Same general formula as Cycloalkanes (CnH2n) Have a double bond. 
                                                                                1. Addition Reactions
                                                                                  1. With hydrogen

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • Nickel catalyst, 150 degrees celcius. Forms an alkane. 
                                                                                    1. With halogens

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • Halogen should be dissolved in hexane, room temp.  (involved in the test for alkenes: Br2 water. Orange to colourless). Forms a di-substituted haloalkane
                                                                                      1. With hydrogen halides

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • The hydrogen halide should be in the gas phase, room temp. Forms a mono-substituted haloalkane. 
                                                                                        1. with Potassium manganate

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • Forms a diol (2 OH groups). Needs dilute sulphuric acid, room temp. Potassium manganate is an oxidising agent. Purple to colourless. 
                                                                                        2. Mechanisms

                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                          • Electrophilic addition- 100% atom economy as only 1 product.  e.g alkene+ HBr or Br2.  REMEMBER: propene with HBr has a major and a minor product. Major more likely to form as a secondary haloalkane rather than a primary which is more stable due to alkyl groups being electron releasing.

                                                                                          Attachments:

                                                                                          1. Electrophilic addition
                                                                                          2. Polymerisation

                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                            • 100% yield as only 1 product.  Monomers join to form a polymer- exam may ask to draw repeat units of product. 

                                                                                            Attachments:

                                                                                            1. Geometric Isomerism
                                                                                              1. E/Z

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • Happens when cis trans breaks down. Z= cis E= trans  Whichever takes the highest priority (highest Mr)
                                                                                                1. cis/trans
                                                                                                  1. restricted rotation around double bond if there are different groups on each carbon
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