Clare Pidgeon
Mind Map by Clare Pidgeon, updated more than 1 year ago
Clare Pidgeon
Created by Clare Pidgeon over 6 years ago



Resource summary

  1. INTRO
    1. Affects crime and CJS in many ways
      1. Transnational concepts by powerful West applied - challenging state power
        1. Crime can cross borders - cooperation required
          1. Policies spread across the globe
          2. Global economy - one states economy affects others
          3. CONCLUSION
            1. Global crime requires international cooperation - loss of individual state power
              1. Deferred to supranational (EU) but necessary to fight terrorism
              2. Globalisation challenging state sovereignty
                1. International courts
                  1. Powerful West challenge developing nations
                  2. Global trends affecting crime control
                    1. Global trends
                      1. 'Whats works'
                        1. Punitive
                    2. GLOBAL TRENDS
                      1. Baker & Roberts - Globalisation main contributor
                        1. Homogenisation across diverse jurisdictions
                          1. Acceleration of penal policies
                            1. Promotion of short term penal policies over evidence based ones
                            2. Globalisation helped spread punitiveness but politics and culture also important
                              1. HUtton - politicians harsher for votes (believe reduces crime)
                                1. Weak correlation between crime rates and rates of imprisonment eg Texas & California
                                  1. Punitive
                                    1. Punishment
                                      1. Pratt et al - mass incarceration and longer sentences
                                        1. Not proportionate
                                        2. Western movement
                                          1. Decline in 1970s but back late 20th C
                                            1. US zero tolerance, 3 strike, mandatory sentences
                                          2. International Crime Victim Survey - not global, US & UK much closer than Europe
                                            1. Tonry - US & UK favour prison more than Europe
                                          3. CROSS - BORDER CRIME
                                            1. Difficult for individual states to fight
                                              1. Transnational + International policing
                                                1. Challenges state sovereignty
                                              2. Westphalia system created by states to protect borders
                                                1. Globalisation and integration of world economy needs increased international cooperation based on this model
                                                2. International policing (Interpol) provides channel of communication between local forces across borders
                                                  1. Transnational policing cooperation amongst many nations across many borders
                                                    1. Walker - policing authority moving from state to supranational bodies (EU/UN) most powerful form
                                                      1. Den Boer - horizontal between local forces in neighbouring countries,
                                                        1. Vertical between nation states and supranational bodies like EU and UN
                                                      2. TRANSNATIONAL CONCEPTS
                                                        1. UDHR signed 1948, 48 nations - only 4 independent Africa
                                                          1. West imposing 'oppressive' rights on other cultures
                                                            1. Diplomats fighting for own best interests - is it really universal to all cultures?
                                                            2. Roberston - 'fair trial' for terrorists is impossible
                                                              1. already seen as 'outlow' forfeited human rights
                                                              2. Split into two types
                                                                1. Civil & Political rights (CPR)
                                                                  1. Western, democratic rights like free speech
                                                                  2. Economic, social and cultural rights (ESCR)
                                                                    1. Feature of single party states, needed so sustain life eg food, education
                                                                  3. Used as power tool
                                                                    1. Kissinger - International human rights agreement considered diplomatic weapon
                                                                    2. Economic globalism led to political globalism
                                                                      1. One states actions affect others
                                                                        1. State sovereignty lost its power
                                                                      2. Used against war crimes & crimes against humanity
                                                                        1. Sadam Hussein - hanged for crimes against humanity
                                                                          1. Pinochet immune despite being head of state at time of crimes
                                                                          2. Human rights laws can have positive outcomes against heads of state
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