Arboviruses

Nicolette Adamson
Mind Map by Nicolette Adamson, updated more than 1 year ago
Nicolette Adamson
Created by Nicolette Adamson about 6 years ago
23
0

Description

A detailed overview of Module 2 Virology-Arboviruses Does not include retroviruses, lentiviruses, TSE's, caliciviruses, bornaviruses, papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

Resource summary

Arboviruses

Annotations:

  • Arthropod borne, RNA. Dist. on temperature. Enzootic and Epizootic cycles. Epizootic comes from changes in climate, ecology and from long distance movement. DIAGNOSE:Serology Exotic to NZ
  1. Reoviridae

    Annotations:

    • Tough in environment.
    1. Orbiviruses

      Annotations:

      • Replicate in LN and then to blood. They like the endothelial cells which causes vascular permeability, occlusion and oedema. Many serotypes each (makes vaccination hard).
      1. Blue tongue
        1. Culicoides midge in AUS. Confined to North AUS. Could come to NZ by importing ruminants into zoos
          1. Signs=Swollen mouth, droopy ears, coronary band swelling, lameness.
          2. African Horse Sickness
            1. Highly fatal disease of horses and mules. Serotypes 1-8 (out of 9) are pathogenic.
              1. Control=Vaccination (poly or monovalent), vector control, killing infected horses,.
            2. Rotaviruses

              Annotations:

              • Common cause of diarrhoea in infants - Disease seen in young animals 1-8 weeks old. Acid stable virus, hardy in environment. Factors contributing=chilling, overcrowding, poor hygiene, no colostrum. Diagnose with agglutination test. Control with vaccine.
            3. Bunyaviridae

              Annotations:

              • Can cause disease in humans. Can be transmitted via arthropod eggs too.
              1. Rift valley fever
                1. Not a huge threat to coming into NZ
                  1. Culex and aedes mosquitos
                  2. Akabane
                    1. Exotic to NZ- we don't have Culicoides
                      1. Causes reproductive issues in when it switched to epizootic cycle, no clinical signs in enzootic cycle.
                      2. Nairobi sheep disease
                        1. Not in NZ
                          1. Causes fever, haemorrhagic enteritis, abortion and mortality.
                            1. Diagnose by virus isolation, control by vaccine or tick control
                          2. Togaviridae
                            1. Alphaviruses

                              Annotations:

                              • Fragile RNA virus
                              1. Encephalitis

                                Annotations:

                                • Primary and secondary viraemia occurs, primary in LN and secondary in organs. It is infective to the arthropod at the level of secondary viraemia, and it then invades the CNS. Depression, incoordination, droopy face, impaired vision, circling, paralysis. You can vaccinate (also works to control human infection)
                                1. Eastern equine encephalitis
                                  1. Western equine encephalitis
                                    1. Venezuelan equine encephalitis

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Abortion in humans
                                2. Flaviviridae

                                  Annotations:

                                  • Easy to kill, Nucleic acid itself is infectious.
                                  1. Dengue

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Immunity for life for a single serotype only (no cross protection)
                                    1. West Nile Virus

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Uses humans and some mammals as secondary hosts
                                      1. Of Veterinary Importance
                                        1. Louping ill

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Exotic to NZ Neurological signs. Control by vaccines and acaricides
                                          1. Wellesbron disease
                                            1. Japanese Encephalitis

                                              Annotations:

                                              • Exotic to NZ Pigs are amplifier host (can get sick too though). Vaccine available.
                                            2. BVD and MD
                                              1. Outcome dependent on age, immunity, dose, strain and pregnancy status
                                                1. BVD: Clinical infection is common in animals 6-18 months old, fever diarrhoea etc. High morbidity, low mortality.
                                                  1. If pregnant: Under 40days=Failure to conceive, 40-120 days=Persistently infected calf, 120-150 days=congenital defects.
                                                    1. Can vaccinate to control more persistently infected animals being born.
                                                  2. MD: Low morbidity, high mortality. Acute=Fever, erosions etc leading to death. Chronic=Erosions on muzzle, death in 2-6 months.
                                                    1. The BVD strain is either inherited or becomes cytopathic in persistently infected animals. They then shed the disease.
                                                    2. Diagnosis is by normal means, but PI animals are not antibody positive.
                                                      1. Prevention by vaccination.
                                                    3. Classical swine fever

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Exotic to NZ Haemorrhage, ulcers, petechiae.
                                                    4. Equine infectious Anaemia
                                                      1. Of the lentivirus family but is an arbovirus too.
                                                        1. 1-3 week incubation followed by either acute or subacute forms of disease. Acute has serious effects followed by 80% mortality. Subacute has lifelong infection and shedding with recurrent episodes.
                                                        2. Exotic to NZ
                                                        Show full summary Hide full summary

                                                        Similar

                                                        Basic Immunology Principles
                                                        Robyn Hokulani-C
                                                        Anatomical terminology - Axial Skeleton
                                                        celine_barbiersg
                                                        Veterinary Nursing Instruments
                                                        rowan.bray
                                                        Virus
                                                        Kahlen Ng
                                                        Non-Arboviruses
                                                        Nicolette Adamson
                                                        Pharmacology I: Final Quiz
                                                        MRaythe
                                                        Skin pathology
                                                        Justin Veazey
                                                        Veterinary Technician 2
                                                        Kadii Spurling
                                                        Parasites photos
                                                        Hannah Spicer
                                                        Pharmacology
                                                        Justin Veazey
                                                        Prescriptions (veterinary)
                                                        Lyndsey Cullum