COLONIAL EXPANSION IN THE 19TH CENTURY

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COLONIAL EXPANSION IN THE 19TH CENTURY
  1. Lord Wellesley and Tipu Sultan: The Battle of Seringapatnam, 1799
    1. EIC acted as a state, administering the Permanent Settlement and its attendant administrative, executive, and judicial structures
      1. Wellesley's Governor Generalship launched the next phase of colonial expansion
        1. Under subsidiary alliance, the Company got an annual fee from the state in exchange for the protection of Company troops
          1. Though ruler still remains in power by name, he is required to disband his army
          2. military, revenue streams and trade expanded
          3. In Deccan Plateau, great state of Mysore was founded by Haider Ali
            1. Ruled by son, Tipu Sultan, by Wellesley's time
              1. rule of father and son described as prosperity, stability and reform
                1. eliminated revenue farming and intermediary by collecting directly from peasants
                  1. created formidable and skilled army of 60,000
                    1. Tipu Sultan fought EIC troops to a draw at Battle of Poligur in 1784
                      1. 2nd war in 1791, Tipu suffered minor damage
                        1. 1799, Tipu was fully defeated
                          1. Tipu died fighting the English
                            1. After his defeat, the British restored former rulers
                              1. British created a treaty in which their military protection was the reward for the British giving their land back
                      2. The Next Phase of Colonial Expansion
                        1. Maratha power was less simple to dismember
                          1. Ruling a collection of sub-kingdoms under head at Poona
                            1. Maratha kings were constructing arms factories
                              1. Company utilized the lack of Maratha Unity
                                1. Treaty of Bassein signed in 1802 forced the Marathas to submit to a subsidiary alliance
                                  1. 1818, Maratha court mobilized against the British, resulting into Maratha total defeat
                                2. in early 1840s, EIC launched a disastrous war in Afghanistan
                                  1. 1842, EIC realized it could control a lot of territory but not take it all
                                    1. 16,000 soldiers died at Kabul and only one returned to Britain
                                    2. 1842, EIC was able to annex Sindh
                                      1. After failure in Afghan, turned to Punjab because great Sikh ruler (Ranjit Singh) died in 1839
                                        1. won at the 1st Sikh War in 1845
                                          1. allowed the Company to install a resident at the court in Lahore
                                            1. rewarded Hindu King of neighboring Jammu with the valley kingdom of Kashmir
                                              1. Treaty of Amritsar of 1846 granted these terms with other rewards
                                            2. 1848-49 Company annexed Ranjit's kingdom
                                              1. "the Punjab school"
                                                1. emphasized strict rule and a large scope for British knowledge of Indians
                                            3. Awadh
                                              1. After Battle of Buxar and Treaty of Allahabad in 1765
                                                1. classic subsidiary alliance
                                                2. Nawab had to cut into his own bases to meet the Company's demand
                                                  1. the bases that kept him in power
                                                    1. fell deeper in debt
                                                    2. 1801, gave up eastern territory to EIC
                                                      1. 1818, Nawab declared himself king but no use
                                                      2. 1856, British under Dalhousie annexed Oudh completely
                                                        1. sparked Indian Rebellion in 1857-8
                                                        2. 1819, took Singapore
                                                          1. 1839, British took port city of Aden on Arabian Sea
                                                          2. Indirect Rule and Princely India
                                                            1. Governor-General Dalhousie arrived in India in 1848
                                                              1. convinced westernizer
                                                                1. two priorities
                                                                  1. wanted to dramatically expand communication
                                                                    1. transport infrastructure in India
                                                                    2. created a legal device that allowed Britain to take further control
                                                                      1. if ruler didn't bear a son, then Company can take over
                                                                        1. came to be known as the Doctrine of Lapse
                                                                          1. under doctrine Satara, Jhansi, and Nagpur were annexed to Britain
                                                                      2. whole enterprise operated on a theory of paramountcy, in which ultimately the Company was the paramount power in India
                                                                      3. Infrastructure and Economy
                                                                        1. Eastern India, opium took hold as staple crop
                                                                          1. used by Company to pay for Chinese tea
                                                                            1. 1830s opium provided 15% of Company's total revenue
                                                                              1. EIC declared itself monopolistic holder of rights to cultivate opium
                                                                                1. smuggled it into China for profits
                                                                              2. another cash crop was indigo
                                                                                1. dye clothing blue in Europe
                                                                                  1. European planters provided cash advances to peasants to grow indigo
                                                                                    1. boom and bust nature of indigo market left many peasants hard-pressed when market failed in 1827 and 1847
                                                                                      1. colonial state had to use coercion to force peasants to plant indigo
                                                                                        1. led to "Blue Mutiny" in 1859-60 in Bengal
                                                                                          1. prompted change
                                                                                      2. no mutiny in Bihar; indigo "Planter Raj" or Planter rule lasted until 1917
                                                                                      3. weavers
                                                                                        1. position declined because of Industrial revolution
                                                                                          1. manufactured textiles not as pretty as hand woven but couldn't keep up with the number of orders
                                                                                        2. other commodities
                                                                                          1. jute
                                                                                            1. sugar
                                                                                              1. rice
                                                                                                1. grains
                                                                                                  1. timber
                                                                                                  2. advancements in India
                                                                                                    1. railways
                                                                                                      1. built for 2 purposes
                                                                                                        1. move raw materials to ports and manufacturing centers
                                                                                                          1. quickly move troops and material
                                                                                                        2. telegraph
                                                                                                          1. completed in India
                                                                                                            1. 1st deep sea telegraph laid in Calcutta
                                                                                                            2. irrigation
                                                                                                              1. Dalhouise pushed forward irrigation in agrarian land
                                                                                                                1. 500 miles of canal
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