Introduction to Cells

tiasabs
Mind Map by tiasabs , updated more than 1 year ago
tiasabs
Created by tiasabs over 6 years ago
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Mind Map of Topic 1.1 Introduction to Cells in Chapter 1 Cell Biology of IB Biology.

Resource summary

Introduction to Cells
  1. The Cell Theory
    1. living organisms made of cells
      1. first explored: 17th century
        1. cells are the fundamental blocks of all living organisms
          1. common features of cells
            1. surrounded by membranes
              1. contains genetic information
                1. cells activities: chemical reactions catalysed by enzymes produced in cell
                  1. have own energy release sytems
                2. Unicellular organisms
                  1. consisting of only one cell
                    1. carries out all life functions
                      1. Metabolism
                        1. Growth
                          1. Excretion
                            1. Homeostasis
                              1. Nutrition
                                1. Response
                                  1. Reproduction
                                  2. some move; some drift in air/water or stay fixed
                                  3. Limitations on cell size
                                    1. surface area to volume ratio
                                      1. too small
                                        1. surface absorption less
                                          1. waste accumulates
                                            1. overheating
                                          2. metabolic rate of cell is proportional to volume
                                            1. substance absorbption and waste excretion important
                                              1. movement through plasma memberanes
                                                1. surface area determines
                                              2. multicellular organisms
                                                1. have properties that emerge from cell interaction
                                                  1. emergent properties
                                                    1. whole is greater than sum of its parts
                                                    2. mass of cells fused together
                                                      1. cooperative groups
                                                      2. Cell differentiation in multicellular organisms
                                                        1. used to develop specialized tissue
                                                          1. division of labor
                                                            1. tissue
                                                              1. group of cells that specialize in the same way
                                                                1. more efficient
                                                                2. to carry out different fiunctions
                                                                  1. 220 distinctive types in humans
                                                                  2. Gene expression and cell differentiation
                                                                    1. involves expression of some genes and not others
                                                                      1. 25000 genes present in every human body cell
                                                                        1. only some used
                                                                        2. imp: control of gene expression
                                                                        3. Stem cells
                                                                          1. therapeutic uses
                                                                            1. regenerate burnt tissue
                                                                              1. healing diseases like diabetes
                                                                                1. grow replacement organs such as kidney
                                                                                2. embryonic development
                                                                                  1. cells that haven't differentiated yet
                                                                                    1. key properties
                                                                                      1. can produce copious amounts of new cells; rectify tissue damage
                                                                                        1. can differentiate in different ways
                                                                                        2. large amounts of meat for consumption without slaughter
                                                                                          1. once commited to pah of differentiation; no longer stem cells
                                                                                            1. adult stem cells in bone marrow, liver and skin
                                                                                              1. limited repair; brain, kidney and heart
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