Products From Oil

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on Products From Oil, created by dhruvap on 11/04/2013.

Created by dhruvap almost 6 years ago
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Products From Oil
1 Fractions
1.1 Cracking: Breaking down of a long chain hydrocarbon into smaller, more useful hydrocarbons
1.1.1 This is done by Heating the hydrocarbon until it vaporises then passing it over a heated catalyst
1.1.2 There is higher demand for shorter hydrocarbons
1.1.3 The products of cracking are a Short Chain Alkane (fuel) and a Short Chain Alkene (for polymers)
2 Polymerisation
2.1 Alkenes & Alkanes
2.1.1 When added to bromine: Alkanes have no change, Alkenes decolourise This is because Alkanes are saturated
2.1.2 Ethanol can be produced in two main ways: Fermentation: Sugar is left to ferment, with a yeast catalyst, to produce Carbon Dioxide and Ethanol. (The product is impure) Industrial Production: React ethene with steam Ethene + Water > Ethanol Ethanol: C(2)H(5)OH
2.1.3 Alkenes are the starting materials for polymers
2.2 Polymerisation: Many small, identical Alkenes (monomers) are joined together to form a long chain Alkane (polymer)
2.3 Plastics can be distinguished into two groups
2.3.1 Thermosetting plastics only soften once chains are fixed in position by the strong bonds between them (cross-linkages) When heated, strong bonds are formed between the chains which prevent them from being melted again. e.g. Bakelite
2.3.2 Thermosoftening plastics soften easily and can be remoulded if heated weak forces of attraction between the polymer chains strong forces of attraction within each chain e.g. Polyethene
2.4 Uses an Problems of Plastics
2.4.1 Suitable for storing food because they are unreactive
2.4.2 Difficult to dispose of do not biodegrade easily litter goes to landfill Cornstarch can be added to plastics to make them break down faster
2.4.3 Polymers can be recycled reduces amount going to landfill different polymers must be seperated
2.4.4 Polymers can be recycled emits harmful gasses into the environment

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