High tariffs encourage
people to buy
cheaper, locally made
Federation would mean that this would
be removed and Victorian businesses
would need to compete other states.
Protectionism refers to a set of economic
policies that protect local industry from
Usually done by the use of Tariffs
Tariffs are Taxes on Imported Goods
strongly favoured the
policy of protectionism
LOSS OF COLONIAL POWER
People were concerned that
larger states would place their
thought that taxes
from the larger
states would be
spent on smaller
People in Tasmania and
Western Australia were
concerned that in a
federation, the larger
states would place their
own interests first.
Sugar-cane farmers benefitted from the labour of
Pacific Islander People.
They feared that a federal parliament would
create laws restricting the immigration of
DISTANCE BETWEEN COLONIES
Each colony had developed a
basic rail network by the
Each colony had developed a basic rail
network by the 1880s
the fastest method of
transport between capital
cities was still by boat.
THE LABOUR MOVEMENT
A federal parliament would give
employers an opportunity to
They would have a better chance of
improving wages and conditions in
colonies without federation.
trade unionists felt they had a
better chance of improving wages
and conditions in their own colonies
rather than in a federal system
GREATER ECONOMIC CONCERNS
Great strikes created
widespread social unrest. People
believed there were things more
concerning than federation.
Popular support was hard to gain
with people facing unemployment
During the economic depression of the early 1890s, colonial politicians
believed there were more urgent concerns to deal with than federation.
Points FOR Federation
Most believed that for the European race to
prosper and thrive in Australia it had to retain
its British character.
It was believed that a federal system would
allow for the creation of a ‘White Australia’ by
restricting Chinese and other non-European
Federation would prevent
immigration to Queensland and
moving to other states
arrival of about 60000
Pacific Islander People.
DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRALIAN NATIONALISM
the belief that people of the same
region, ethnicity, culture or
language should unite to form
their own nation states.
As the number of
began to outnumber
those born overseas, an
In 1880, the Australian Natives Association began its
push for the federation of the British colonies in
SECURITY AND DEFENCE
Each colony had its own defence force
but during the 1880s, all had
grown concerned over German
and French expansion in the
South Pacific region. This
highlighted the inadequacy of
colonial defences and united the
Australian colonies in dealing with
a potential invasion from the
New South Wales premier Henry Parkes believed,
however, that only a federation could improve national
defence. While the Federal Council had limited
diplomatic powers and lacked the support of New South
Wales, it marked an important step towards colonial
unity on federation.
‘Free traders’ called for the removal of tariffs and
other trade barriers between the Australian colonies.
main support for free trade came
from New South Wales
It was also believed that foreign trade and investment would be easier to attract if goods
came from an established nation rather than from small and distant colonies.
By 1880, all capital cities were connected by telegraph, and a
telephone cable had been laid between Sydney and Melbourne.
Communication between the distant colonies was
much easier and enabled the development of
stronger political links.
NEED FOR A SINGLE RAIL NETWORK
Each colony had taken responsibility
for the construction of its own rail
network with little consultation with
others. As a result, each colony used
different rail gauges, or track widths.
Even after 1888, when the eastern colonies had
become linked by rail, passengers and goods had to
pass through a customs checkpoint and then board
another train. This made transport unnecessarily
costly and time-consuming.
It also posed a particular problem for
the movement of soldiers northwards in
the event of an invasion
SUPPORT OF BRITAIN
a large global empire proved to be costly and
problematic for the British government.
Under the prime ministership of William Gladstone, Britain
sought to gradually loosen the control of its colonies by
encouraging responsible government.