Federation In Australia

-MARNIE-BL&H-
Mind Map by -MARNIE-BL&H-, updated more than 1 year ago
-MARNIE-BL&H-
Created by -MARNIE-BL&H- about 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Federation In Australia, created by -MARNIE-BL&H- on 08/25/2015.

Resource summary

Federation In Australia
  1. Points AGAINST Federation
    1. PROTECTIONISM
      1. High tariffs encourage people to buy cheaper, locally made goods.
        1. Federation would mean that this would be removed and Victorian businesses would need to compete other states.
          1. Protectionism refers to a set of economic policies that protect local industry from external competition.
            1. Usually done by the use of Tariffs
              1. Tariffs are Taxes on Imported Goods
              2. Victorian governments strongly favoured the policy of protectionism
              3. LOSS OF COLONIAL POWER
                1. People were concerned that larger states would place their interests first.
                  1. Some states thought that taxes from the larger states would be spent on smaller ones.
                    1. People in Tasmania and Western Australia were concerned that in a federation, the larger states would place their own interests first.
                    2. CHEAP LABOUR
                      1. Sugar-cane farmers benefitted from the labour of Pacific Islander People.
                        1. They feared that
 a federal parliament would create laws restricting the immigration of Non-European workers.
                        2. DISTANCE BETWEEN COLONIES
                          1. Each colony had developed a basic rail network by the 1880s
                            1. Each colony had developed a basic rail network by the 1880s
                              1. the fastest method of transport between capital cities was still by boat.
                              2. THE LABOUR MOVEMENT
                                1. A federal parliament would give employers an opportunity to overturn laws.
                                  1. They would have a better chance of improving wages and conditions in colonies without federation.
                                    1. trade unionists felt they had a better chance of improving wages and conditions in their own colonies rather than in a federal system
                                    2. GREATER ECONOMIC CONCERNS
                                      1. Great strikes created widespread social unrest. People believed there were things more concerning than federation.
                                        1. Popular support was hard to gain with people facing unemployment and homelessness.
                                          1. During the economic depression of the early 1890s, colonial politicians believed there were more urgent concerns to deal with than federation.
                                        2. Points FOR Federation
                                          1. IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION
                                            1. Most believed that for the European race to prosper and thrive in Australia it had to retain its British character.
                                              1. It was believed that a federal system would allow for the creation of a ‘White Australia’ by restricting Chinese and other non-European immigration.
                                                1. Federation would prevent immigration to Queensland and moving to other states
                                                  1. arrival of about 60000 Pacific Islander People. from Queensland
                                                2. DEVELOPMENT OF AUSTRALIAN NATIONALISM
                                                  1. the belief that people of the same region, ethnicity, culture or language should unite to form their own nation states.
                                                    1. As the number of Australian-born people began to outnumber those born overseas, an Australian identity emerged.
                                                      1. In 1880, the Australian Natives Association began its push for the federation of the British colonies in Australia.
                                                    2. SECURITY AND DEFENCE
                                                      1. Each colony had its own defence force
                                                        1. but during the 1880s, all had grown concerned over German and French expansion in the South Pacific region. This highlighted the inadequacy of colonial defences and united the Australian colonies in dealing with a potential invasion from the north.
                                                        2. New South Wales premier Henry Parkes believed, however, that only a federation could improve national defence. While the Federal Council had limited diplomatic powers and lacked the support of New South Wales, it marked an important step towards colonial unity on federation.
                                                        3. FREE TRADE
                                                          1. ‘Free traders’ called for the removal of tariffs and other trade barriers between the Australian colonies.
                                                            1. main support for free trade came from New South Wales
                                                              1. It was also believed that foreign trade and investment would be easier to attract if goods came from an established nation rather than from small and distant colonies.
                                                              2. IMPROVED COMMUNICATION
                                                                1. By 1880, all capital cities were connected by telegraph, and a telephone cable had been laid between Sydney and Melbourne.
                                                                  1. Communication between the distant colonies was much easier and enabled the development of stronger political links.
                                                                  2. NEED FOR A SINGLE RAIL NETWORK
                                                                    1. Each colony had taken responsibility for the construction of its own rail network with little consultation with others. As a result, each colony used different rail gauges, or track widths.
                                                                      1. Even after 1888, when the eastern colonies had become linked by rail, passengers and goods had to pass through a customs checkpoint and then board another train. This made transport unnecessarily costly and time-consuming.
                                                                        1. It also posed a particular problem for the movement of soldiers northwards in the event of an invasion
                                                                      2. SUPPORT OF BRITAIN
                                                                        1. a large global empire proved to be costly and problematic for the British government.
                                                                          1. Under the prime ministership of William Gladstone, Britain sought to gradually loosen the control of its colonies by encouraging responsible government.
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