Approaches to learning

kong_suo
Mind Map by kong_suo, updated more than 1 year ago
kong_suo
Created by kong_suo almost 6 years ago
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approaches to learning.

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Approaches to learning
  1. Behaviourist applications to learning
    1. operant conditioning
      1. says that the consequences of an action (whether it is rewarded or punished) affect whether the action is repeated or changed. This allows the formation of new behaviours.
        1. Programmed learning (Skinner) (frames and feedback)
        2. e.g. Skinner Box
        3. classical conditioning
          1. involves the association of a certain stimulus to a certain response. Pavlov's dogs are a famous example of classical conditioning.
            1. unconditioned stimulus
              1. unconditioned response
                1. neutral stimulus
                  1. conditioned stimulus
                    1. conditioned response
                  2. Positives
                    1. useful applications to schools, aeasy to implement and easy for students and teachers to understand.
                      1. scientific method of analyzing behaviors, emphasizing the use of objective measuring techniques and measurable outcomes. Should be able to applied to large numbers of children in an unbiased way.
                      2. Negatives
                        1. Theories found from animal experiments are hard to applied on humans.
                          1. Behaviourist theories ignore other approaches such as the cognitive approach. It just a partial explanation.
                            1. Some behaviourist strategies create ethical issues such as protection from harm.
                              1. a deterministic theory, which creates a slightly depressing view of humans as creatures that simply mechanistically respond to stimuli, as well as raising ethical questions of consent.
                            2. humanistic applications
                              1. co-operative learning
                                1. debatable whether this is due to the techniques themselves or just the fact that the techniques require a lot of panning and organization.
                                  1. very effective in an organised fashion
                                  2. the open classroom
                                    1. reduce student stress as the atmosphere will be more relaxed.
                                      1. difficult to tell the difference between order and chaos.
                                        1. more creative
                                          1. tend to lead lower academic achievement in standard tests.
                                          2. e.g. Summerhill School
                                            1. Encourages creativity and independence. A large number of students find artistic careers.
                                              1. Exam results tend to be worse than those of more traditional schools.
                                              2. Strengths
                                                1. free will
                                                  1. treat students like individuals
                                                    1. holistic approach
                                                      1. qualitative data
                                                      2. Weakness
                                                        1. highly dependent on the skill of teacher
                                                          1. unscientific approach
                                                            1. time consuming and difficult
                                                              1. hard to produce multiple lessons
                                                            2. Cognitive applications
                                                              1. thought processes
                                                                1. Piaget
                                                                  1. Advantages
                                                                    1. helpful if the teacher offer guidance
                                                                      1. less deterministic
                                                                        1. had useful applicatiolns
                                                                          1. problem-based learning
                                                                          2. Disadvantages
                                                                            1. difficult balance between reduced teacher involvement and no teacher involvement
                                                                              1. children may do with errors or misconceptions that are not being corrected.
                                                                                1. some very abstract or theoretical concepts may not suitable for discovery learning.
                                                                                  1. time consuming
                                                                                    1. more direct forms of instruction may be needed.
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