TRENCH WARFARE ON WESTERN FRONT

jo.newdawn
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

GCSE History Mind Map on TRENCH WARFARE ON WESTERN FRONT, created by jo.newdawn on 11/08/2013.

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jo.newdawn
Created by jo.newdawn almost 6 years ago
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TRENCH WARFARE ON WESTERN FRONT
1 BRITISH WEAPONS
1.1 Grenades & Shells
1.1.1 Initial shortage of grenades and bigger shells called howitzer By 1916 - 17 they were widely available
1.2 Stokes Mortar
1.2.1 Could fire 22 shells per min
1.3 Lewis Gun
1.3.1 light & effective in trench warfare. Initially Germans had nothing similar
1.4 Vickers Machine Gun
1.4.1 Range 3000 yards
1.4.2 Could fire 450-550 rounds per min
1.5 Lee Enfield Rifle
1.5.1 Very efficient gun issued to infantry soldiers
2 TACTICS OF TRENCH WARFARE
2.1 The Germans were occupying Belgium & French territory. It was British & French who had to launch attacks and try and dislodge the Germans
2.2 Going over the top through no mans land
2.3 Bombarding opposing forces with shells
2.4 Germans began to use poisonous gases eg mustard gas from 1915
2.5 By the end of the war tanks were being used by British as a method of breaking thru enemy lines
2.6 Another tactic used by British at Messines Ridge near Ypres was to dig towards towards German linesand detonate mines underneath them
2.7 Creeping Barrage where advancing infantry would be protected by an arc of artilary fire landing infront of them
3 CONDITIONS IN THE TRENCHES
3.1 Trench foot, rats & lice causing trench fever
3.2 31% of those served in the army were wounded compared to 3/4% of those in Navy/airforce
3.3 Days spent knee deep in water/mud - trench foot
3.4 Lack of food & sleep
4 BUILDING OF TRENCHES - built wherever the enemy was found no matter what was in the way
4.1 Usually 2m deep & 2m wide
4.1.1 dug in a zig zag so blast from an exploding shell would be confined to small section of trench
4.2 Normally 3 lines of trenches on each side of no mans land - divided enemy armies
4.3 On Front line trenches built with firing steps/elbow rests to help shooting over the top
4.4 Behind front line trenches were SUPPORT trenches and behind support trenches were RESERVE trenches
4.4.1 Connecting 3 lines of trenches were communication trenches
4.4.2 BLIND ALLEYS - to confuse the enemy
4.4.3 SAPS - shallow trenches leading to look out posts/machine gun nests

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