PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISM

Hoa Truong
Mind Map by Hoa Truong, updated more than 1 year ago
Hoa Truong
Created by Hoa Truong over 6 years ago
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semester petrol 2 Mind Map on PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISM, created by Hoa Truong on 09/15/2015.

Resource summary

PRIMARY RECOVERY MECHANISM
  1. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
    1. Ultimate recovery factor
      1. Press decline rate
        1. GOR
          1. Water Production
          2. Recover oil by natural drive mechanisms
            1. Production of HC without add extra energy to reservoir
              1. NATURAL DRIVES
                1. COMPACTION DRIVE
                  1. rock & liquid expansion
                    1. materials present: crude oil, connate water, rock
                      1. as reser. press decr. -> rock& fluid expand due to their compressibilities-> grains expand-> bulk volume incr. -> reduce poro/pore V + fluid expand -> oil & water force out of pore space to wellbore
                        1. liquids & rock: slightly compressible -> can overcome the press drop due to production-> rapid press decline during production
                          1. constant GOR = gas solubility at bubble point press
                            1. least effective drive: only recover small % OIIP
                            2. DEPLETION DRIVE
                              1. As production, Press decr. < bubble Press -> gas form (GAS LIBERATION from oil)+ expand -> push oil to wellbore -> incr. oil production-> until reach critical press-> gas get inside wellbore instead of oil-> reduce oil production
                                1. also called SOLUTION GAS /DISSOLVED GAS/ INTERNAL GAS
                                  1. press decr. rapidly & continuously. little/no water production. rapid inc. GOR . rapid incr. oil production until reach critical press at which rapid decr.
                                    1. 5-30% recovery OIIP, best for secondary recovery
                                    2. GAS CAP DRIVE
                                      1. As press decr. during production -> gas cap expand (gas expand to occupied V loss by oil produced + gas liberate from oil) to maintain press -> push the oil to well bore
                                        1. Develop wells positions: drills many wells at different depth -> determine GOR production from these wells -> shut down wells which produced excessive gas or use to re-inject gas back to reservoir
                                          1. present of a gas cap with little/no water drive
                                            1. Press fall slow, continuously. no/little water produce. GOR rise continuously
                                              1. 20-40%,larger recovery than depletion drive
                                                1. incr. size of gas cap, high vertical permeability, low oil viscosity -> greater Gas cap drive -> inc. recovery % OIIP
                                                2. WATER DRIVE
                                                  1. as production, Press decr. & V of oil decr. -> water replace oil V (water move into pore space)-> maintain press -> push oil to wellbore
                                                    1. as compactivity of water < oil, water source in reser. need to connect to a large water body
                                                      1. At water invaded zone, polymers can be inject to inc. viscosity so the water can get through oil to wellbore
                                                        1. Gradual press decline (water maintain press drop). little change in GOR.
                                                          1. much higher recovery % OIIP than other drives. 35-75%
                                                          2. GRAVITY-DRAINAGE DRIVE
                                                            1. need a slow flowrate of production for gas to have time to move up to the gas cap
                                                              1. As production, press decr. -> gas lubricate from oil -> go up to gas cap due to gravity (gas density < oil density) -> opposite force push oil down & into wellbore
                                                                1. bigger gas cap -> greater gravity-drainage drive
                                                                  1. occur as result of difference densities of reser. fluids
                                                                    1. rapid press decr. Low GOR. form secondary gas cap in undersaturated reser. little/no water produce.
                                                                      1. can excess 80% recovery OIIP
                                                                      2. COMBINATION DRIVE
                                                                        1. combination of different natural drives in one reservoir
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