Contemporary Approaches

esme2015
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esme2015
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contemporary approaches
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Contemporary Approaches
1 many ideas taken from the historical approaches to psychology are reflected in contemporary approaches to the study of psychoogy
1.1 the most important approaches to the study of psych today are the psychoanalytic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, biological, and sociocultural approaches
2 Psychoanalytic Psychology
2.1 Sigmund Freud was interested in the unconscious mind
2.1.1 he believed our conscious experiences are only the tip of the iceberg, that beneath the surface are primitive biological urges that are in conflict with the requirements of society and morality
2.1.2 Freud used a new method for indirectly studying unconscious processes- free association
2.1.2.1 in this technique, the patient said everything that came to mind- no matter what, without attempting to produce logical or meaningful statements... Freud acted as the psychoanalyst
3 Behavioral Psychology
3.1 the work of Ivan Pavlov charted another new course for psychological investigation
3.2 he tested the conditioned reflex and the provoking by a stimulous
3.2.1 the concept was used by psychologists as a new tool, as means of exploring the development of behavior...this enabled them to explain how certain acts and certain differences among individuals were the result of learning
3.3 psychologists who stressed investigating observable behavior were known as behaviorists
3.3.1 although it was John B. Watson who defined an solidified the behaviorist position, it was B.F. Skinner who introduced the concept of reinforcement- a response to a behavior that increases the likelihood the behavior will be repeated
4 Humanistic Psychology
4.1 it differs from behaviorism and psychoanalysis in that it does not view humans as being controlled by events in the environment or by unconscious forces
4.1.1 the humanistic approach emphasizes how each person is unique and has a self-concept and potential to develop fully
5 Cognitive Psychology
5.1 cognitivists focus on how we process, store, and use information and how this info influences our thinking, problem solving, and creativity
5.1.1 they believe that behavior is more than a simple response to a stimulus...behavior is influenced by a variety of mental processes, including perceptions, memories, and expectations
6 Biological Psychology
6.1 Psychobiologists study how the brain, the nervous system, hormones, and genetics influence our behavior
6.1.1 Psychobiologists have found that genetic factors greatly influence a wide range of human behaviors
7 Sociocultural Psychology
7.1 involves studying the influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning
7.2 sociocultural psychologists also study the impact and integration of the immigrants who come to the US each year...they study the attitudes, values, beliefs, and social norms and roles of these different ethnic groups
7.3 the sociocultural approach is also concerned with issues such as gender and socioeconomic status and is based on the idea that these factors impact human behavior and mental processes
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