Chapter 3 International Infrastructure

Gustavo Herrera
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Gustavo Herrera
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Chapter 3 International Infrastructure

Annotations:

  • All elements in place (public or privately owned goods) to facilitate transportation, communication and business exchange. 
1 Port infrastructure
1.1 Ships
1.1.1 Panamax ship

Annotations:

  • Ship of maximum size that can enter the locks of the Panama Canal. (1980-x) 3000-3400 TEU Panamax Max (1985-x)3400-4500 TEU
1.1.2 Post-Panamax Ships

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  • A ship whose size is too large to enter te locks of the Panama Canal. 175 containerships +10000 TEU´s (3.5% total containerships). ->Asia to Western Europe   Post Panamax (1988-x) 4000-5000 TEU Post Panamax Plus (2000-x) 6000-8000 TEU New Panamax (2014-x) 12500 TEU Post New Panamax (2006-x) 15000 TEUS Triple E (2014-x) 18000 TEU
1.2 Depth of Water

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  • 13.5 m (40 ft)
1.3 Bridge Clearance
1.3.1 Air Draft

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  • The minumum amount of space between water and the lowest point on a bridge.
1.4 Cranes
1.5 Port Operations

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  • ->Schedule (The best is 24/7)
1.6 Warehousing Space

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  • Storage area that protect them from rain and sun, floods, etc. Even refrigerated containers (power supply)
1.7 Connections with Land-Based Transportation Services
1.7.1 Rail
1.7.2 Road
1.8 Port capacity
2 Canals and Waterways Infrastructure
2.1 Panama Canal

Annotations:

  • -> Cost: 375x10^6 USD -> 5% of Worldwide Cargo trabsuts. ->Slow (maximum capacity) 22h to enter the Canal. ->New Canal: 12600 TEU ships
2.2 Bosporus Strait (Turkey)

Annotations:

  • -Black Sea-Mediterranean Sea -Russia merchandise (to the rest of the world).
2.3 The Suez Canal

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  • Cuts Sinai Desert (not to travel around Africa)
2.4 Saint Lawrence Seaway

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  • Great Lakes-St Lawrence River and Atlantic Ocean. Plaged by ice, closes from January to March.
2.5 Corinth Canal

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  • Two parts of Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea.
3 Airport Infrastructure
3.1 Runways (pistas)

Annotations:

  • -Type of aircraft. -Length-> Support direct flights to faraway  places. -Number of runways -> Capacity of the airport.
3.2 Hours of operation

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  • Near cities: Cargo at night. Away cities: 24h.
3.3 Warehousing space

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  • -Packaging  -Refrigerated warehouse space.
4 Rail Infrastructure

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  • Most important long-distanceland transportation.  -> Incompatible rails one country to another. -China invest a lot on railroads. -India more in roads than rail ones.
4.1 Multi-Modal Emphasis

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  • Boxcars-> Just for trains. Piggy-back trailers->Multi-Modal (truck trailers). Double-stacked: double than single-stack because is one over the other.
4.2 Land bridges
5 Road Infrastructure

Annotations:

  • -Traffic. -Quality (Pave or not). -Signage
5.1 Paved roads

Annotations:

  • Argentina->30% USA->67% Switzerland and Germany->100%
5.2 Civil Engineering Structures

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  • -> Bridges and tunnels for mountainous countries.
6 Warehousing Infrastructure
7 Communication Infrastructure
7.1 Mail services

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  • -Deliver mail on time and reliably. -Safety of the mail. -Cost
7.2 Telecommunication services

Annotations:

  • +Cellular phones -Traditional line phones
7.3 Internet Access

Annotations:

  • 8.6% of WW population has access to the internet.
8 Utilities Infrastructure

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  • Electricity Water Sewage Gas Not directly an issue for transportation, but if it is considering operating a warehouse/corporate office.
8.1 Electricity
8.2 Water and sewer

Annotations:

  • -85% of rural world population has reasonable access to clean water.  -95% of urban world population has reasonable access to clean water.  -60% of world population has acces to adequate sanitation (drenaje).
8.3 Energy Pipelines

Annotations:

  • Gas
9 Services Infrastructure
9.1 Banking Infrastructure

Annotations:

  • -Transfer funds. -Obtain foreign currency -Move documents (domestic and international) -Process consumer payments efficiently
9.2 Logistics Support Infrastructure

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  • -Freight forwarders (agentes aduanales). -Couriers -Carriers -Delivery services -Packing services -Order fulfillment centers -Other
10 Legal and Regulatory Infrastructure
10.1 Court Infrastructure

Annotations:

  • -Settle disputes quickly and fairly (court system, mediators and arbitrators, competent lawyers, clear jurisprudence)
10.2 Intellectual property Infrastructure
10.2.1 CopyRights
10.2.2 Patents
10.2.3 Trademarks
11 Standars Infrastructure

Annotations:

  • Determine the requirements that their products and operations must meet in order to be succesfull in a particular market. (metric system, etc.)
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