Research Methods

Cerys Gill
Mind Map by Cerys Gill, updated more than 1 year ago
Cerys Gill
Created by Cerys Gill almost 5 years ago
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Research methods for As Psych
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Research Methods
1 Sample
1.1 Target population - group interested in studying
1.2 Sample - the participants
1.3 if the sample represents the target population then it is generalisable
2 Data
2.1 Types of data
2.1.1 Quantitative - numbers
2.1.2 Qualitative - words
2.2 Levels of data
2.2.1 Nominal - Tally/total number of times something happens
2.2.2 Ordinal - Rank order, from smallest to largest
2.2.3 Interval - Precise measurement (universal)
2.3 Primary - collected by researcher
2.4 Secondary - gathered by someone else
3 Reliability
3.1 How consistent a measuring device is
3.2 Internal - can you replicate the study?
3.2.1 Split-half method - compare results of one half with the other. if positive correlation its is assumed to be consistent
3.2.2 Inter-rater reliability - if different observers get the same results
3.3 External - have the participants got a consistent result?
3.3.1 Test-retest method - compare results taken on two different occasions
4 Validity
4.1 How accurate a study is
4.2 Internal - Does it measure what its meant to measure?
4.2.1 Face validity - does it measure what its supposed too
4.2.2 Construct validity - is the measuring device appropriate to the concept
4.2.3 Concurrent validity - comparing it with a well established test
4.2.4 Criterion validity - how well it predicts future performances
4.3 External - can the results be generalised to more people?
4.3.1 Population validity - can the results be generalised to the wider population
4.3.2 Ecological validity - resembles what will happen in everyday life
5 Ethics
5.1 Respect
5.1.1 Consent
5.1.2 Withdrawal
5.1.3 Confidentiality
5.2 Competence
5.3 Responsibility
5.3.1 Debriefing
5.3.2 Protection from harm
5.4 Integrity
5.4.1 Deception
6 Sampling methods
6.1 Self-selecting = people volunteer to take part
6.1.1 not biased and got consent
6.1.2 too many or not enough people
6.2 Opportunity = readily available at a certain time
6.2.1 quick and convenient
6.2.2 biased sample as from one place
6.3 Random = selecting names from a hat
6.3.1 Generalisable and unbiased
6.3.2 Impractical for a large target population
6.4 Snowball = participants contact friends and family to take part
6.4.1 cheap - no advertising
6.4.2 biased as they all know each other so will be similar
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