Chemistry C1

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aqa chemistry revision

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Chemistry C1
  1. Calcium Carbonate CaCO3
    1. Thermal decomposition - substance chemically broken down when heated (Endothermic reaction)
      1. Carbonates of magnesium, zinc, calcium, ect decomposes with heat to form a metal oxide and cadrbon dioxide
        1. Carbonates react with acid to produce carbon dioxide, sa;lt and water
      2. Calcium hydroxide - alkali used to neutrilise acids
          1. limewater turns cloudy because calcium carbonate is insoluable in water
        1. Limestone sedimentry rock
          1. Examples: Igneous-graphite Metaphoric - marble
          2. Acid Rain (sulphuric Acid)- limestone reacts
            1. Cement = Limestone +clay Mortar = sand + Cement Concrete = sand+ grave
          3. Signs of a chemcial reaction - Colour change, Precipitate, Energy formed (fizzing), odour
            1. Exothermic- gives out heat, realeases enegry to surrpundings Endothermic reaction- take energy in from surroundings so temperatue falls
              1. Oxidation- gain oxygen Reduction - lose oxygen
                1. Transition metals
                  1. viscose- thick consistency
                    1. ATOMS AREN'T LOST OR MADE IN CHEMIcAL REACTIONS
                      1. neither is mass
                  2. atomic number - number of protons or electrons
                    1. mass number - prton + neutrons
              2. Alloy
                1. mixture with at least one other element and a metal
                  1. irregular shape so layers can't slide past making it strong
                  2. Strong, easy to shape
                    1. Alloy shape memory- return back to shape when heated. Example: nitinal
                    2. Extracting metals
                      1. Metal ore-natural rocks containing metal or metal compounds in sufficient amount to make extraction worthwhile
                        1. REDUCTION WITH CARBON
                          1. Metal oxide loses oxygen when heated with carbon and is therefore reduced. the carbon gains oxygen and is therefore oxygenised
                            1. below carbon
                            2. ELECTROLYSIS
                              1. Splitting using electricity
                                1. expensive
                                  1. purify copper
                                    1. Positive ions move to negative electrodes
                                    2. PHYTOMINING
                                      1. plants absorb metal compounds, burnt to prouce ash containing metal compounds
                                        1. used for low grade ores as ores are running out
                                      2. BIOLEACHING
                                        1. bacteria produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds
                                        2. concentrated = getting rid of unwanted rock material by heating ores in a furnace (smelting) and then purify - electoylsis
                                        3. Metals
                                          1. Titanium - hip replacement-wont corrode Aluminiun- aeroplane- strong and light
                                          2. Crude oil
                                            1. hydrocarbons
                                              1. fractional distillating column
                                                1. the higher the boiling point- the more energy needed- the longer the chains- the lower down it will be
                                                  1. intermolcular forces
                                                    1. crude oil when burned realease carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide- global dimming-global warming, acid rain
                                                2. ALKANES
                                                    1. one bond
                                                      1. Saturated
                                                      2. Non renewable
                                                      3. COVALENT bonding
                                                        1. sharing
                                                          1. non-metal + non-metal
                                                          2. IONIC bonding
                                                            1. giiving or gaining
                                                              1. metal lose electrons to form positive ions - non-metals gain electrons to form negative ions
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